Delete the first line under Guidance and replace with the following:
“This credit has new thresholds and requirements. The following sections replace the guidance in the LEED v4 Reference Guide”.
Option 1. Interior Furniture and Nonstructural Elements Reuse
Choose path 1 or 2 and then calculate the total cost of new and reused furniture and/or nonstructural materials in the building interior
(everything within the waterproofing membrane). Compile the total cost for the project’s reused nonstructural elements and/or furniture. The formula for determining the portion of the project that is reused is found in Calculation 1:
Calculation 1: Percent Reuse∶ (cost of reused nonstructural elments and furniture)/(total cost of new and reused nonstructural elements and futniture) x 100
Reused elements may originate from a previous project space, a third-party reseller, salvage yard, or other documentable source. This cost entered in the calculation will be the actual cost paid or, if the material came from on-site, the replacement value. The replacement value can be determined by pricing a comparable material in the local market; exclude labor and shipping. If a project team receives a discount from a vendor, the replacement value should reflect the discounted price as opposed to the list value. When the actual cost paid for the reused or salvaged material
is below the cost of an equivalent new item, use the higher value (actual cost) cost of the new equivalent item in the calculations. When the cost to reclaim an item found on-site is less than the cost of an equivalent new item, use the cost of the new item (or replacement cost). Reuse elements included in this credit can also contribute to MR credit Sourcing of Raw Materials.
Include all of the following elements in product categories below, as applicable to the project scope of work.
- Flooring: The flooring product category includes all types of hard and soft surface flooring (carpet, ceramic, vinyl, rubber, engineered, solid wood
, laminates), wall base, underlayment, and other floor coverings. Subflooring is excluded.
- Wall Panels: The wall panels product category includes all nonstructural wall elements (framing, insulation and drywall), finish wall treatments (wall coverings, wall paneling, wall tile), surface wall structures such as gypsum or plaster, cubicle/curtain/partition walls, trim, doors, hardware, frames, windows, and window treatments. Removable/interchangeable fabric panels and vertical structural elements are allowed to be included in the calculations. Structural elements such as wall framing, curtain walls, brick or concrete are excluded.
- Ceilings: The ceilings product category includes all ceiling panels, ceiling tile, surface ceiling structures such as gypsum or plaster, suspended systems (including canopies and clouds), and glazed skylights. Overhead structural elements (exposed, finished, and unfinished) are excluded.
- Furniture: The furniture product category includes all built-in and stand-alone furniture items, furniture systems, and cabinetry.
- Other: Other elements not covered above that are reused and can be documented with purchase data and cost or replacement value.
Option 2. Design for Flexibility and Disassembly
During the design phase (preferably at design development or earlier), create a plan for space flexibility and material disassembly for the interior space. Include flexibility and disassembly goals in the project integrated design process.
Follow guidelines of ISO standard 20887-2020 and/or other guidance resources to help create spaces that can be reconfigured throughout the life of the project with minimal need for demolition and construction. Consider including goals for space flexibility and disassembly in the project BOD
Incorporate the flexibility and disassembly plan into project guidance documents, including specifications and plans, as necessary to ensure the strategies are maintained throughout construction.
Implement space flexibility and design for disassembly strategies in the interior space. For each product category, the units specified must be based on the total amount of the product category in the completed project scope of work. Where the calculation method is allowed to be chosen (such as “furniture” and “other” categories), project teams can choose the metric but must be consistent throughout the calculation.
Additional guidance for product categories
○ Floors and Ceilings: Utilizing accessible and demountable systems for both the floor and ceiling assemblies in a space will greatly increase the usability and adaptability for future space configurations. For purposes of earning the credit, all projects must ensure that not less than 50% of the total project completed area meets the criteria for flexibility for both the floor and ceiling areas. In some cases, the completed project floor area will be greater than the project ceiling area in the scope of work (or vice-versa). In such cases, calculate the amount of the total space in the scope of work that is designed to be accessible and demountable for both the floor and ceiling in the same areas. Divide this by the total floor area for the project scope of work to determine the percentage that is accessible/demountable.
○ Nonstructural Walls: Designing nonstructural walls to be demountable can result in a greater ability to reconfigure spaces without major construction costs or delays. Calculate the amount of demountable walls by surface area, divided by the total nonstructural wall surface area for the completed project scope of work. For purposes of the credit calculation, each nonstructural wall in the scope of work is measured by the surface area of one side of the wall (do not calculate both sides of walls). If nonstructural walls are part of a workstation, count those elements under the furniture systems category below.
○ Furniture Systems: Furniture systems with partitions and/or workstations have exposed connections for ease of modification, expansion, and disassembly. Systems including casework shall be moveable, expandable and/or convertible to account for future space use changes. Calculate achievement by counting of the total number of workstations in the scope of work that are demountable, expandable or convertible, or calculate the percent of the project total floor area in the completed scope of work that has demountable, expandable or convertible furniture systems.
• Include all workspaces in the scope of work for the calculation, including private offices, meeting rooms (including enclosed rooms, freestanding/partitioned areas, or pods), open offices, reception areas, and other regularly occupied workstations.
• Demountable furniture systems located in enclosed offices and/or furniture that is freestanding but demountable will count towards credit achievement calculations. Freestanding furniture that are not demountable or expandable (like file cabinets or desks) do not count for credit achievement purposes.
• Ancillary furniture and occasional furniture are not regularly occupied workspaces and do not count toward credit achievement calculations.
○ Other Interior Finishes: other types of finishes and accessories not covered in the other categories that are demountable, expandable and moveable can be quantified for credit achievement. These may include finishes or coverings affixed to walls, suspended from ceilings, and other interior finish elements that are demountable and expandable. Quantify the total amount of interior finishes and demonstrate that at least half (by surface, floor or ceiling area) are demountable, moveable and expandable.
• Eligible decorative elements must be removable and capable of being used in a future space without significant alteration, or be able to be modified or expanded easily. Examples include salvaged wood
used for decorative siding that is easily removed and reused, or decorative suspended acoustical elements that are moveable.
- Other potential interior finishes that can be counted towards credit achievement:
- Freestanding furniture that is demountable or reconfigurable, such as reused doors placed on trestles for desks.
- Demountable stem walls or room partitions not covered in the other categories.
As a best practice, teams should submit a maintenance, flexibility and disassembly plan to the owner at time of project occupancy. Such a plan would include a set of space flexibility and material disassembly “as built” documents (if different from the design drawings). It also may include a materials inventory and instructions for how materials and assemblies can be maintained, reused, repurposed, repaired, or disassembled for reconfiguration or reuse
over time. Appropriate manufacturer literature should be included, such as cut sheets, product disassembly guidelines, EPDs that include instructions on end of life disassembly, or end of life instructions for products covered by an industry or manufacturer EPR program.
Option 3. Building Interiors Life Cycle Assessment
This credit now offers an interiors life-cycle assessment pathway as a new third option. Refer to the LEED v4 Reference Guide for general information related to conducting a life cycle assessment and showing optimizations in life cycle impacts.
To achieve one point, the project must conduct a compliant life-cycle assessment of the project’s interior. For two points, the project must develop a baseline interiors life cycle assessment and also develop a proposed case based on project optimizations. No reductions are required for earning the second point. To earn 3 points, the proposed building must incorporate reuse
elements and demonstrate a reduction in global warming potential and in two of five other impact categories when compared to a baseline building. All scenarios must include a narrative that documents assumptions and describes the baseline building analysis and any changes made to the proposed building in order to achieve impact reductions (see credit requirements).
Guidance for Project Team Members Conducting an Interiors LCA:
The system boundary of the analysis must include module A (A1-A3 at a minimum) and optionally modules A through D as defined in ISO 21930 and EN 15804 and as applicable to the software tools available, lifecycle data (from EPDs or product-specific LCAs), and the project design. Some gaps in sub-modules may exist due to the materials or dataset chosen and design optimizations attempted for the project. Gaps in sub-modules are allowed so long as the system boundary in total encompasses a cradle-to-grave assessment.
The analysis can be implemented by utilizing software tools that include interior assemblies, collecting EPDs or product-specific LCAs for the interior products, or a combination of both. The LCA process must be compliant with ISO 14044. Tools and data may have limitations; therefore, project teams are advised to document all assumptions if a full analysis is not possible. At a minimum, project teams pursuing this credit must:
Define the project boundary.
Provide information on where life-cycle data was obtained (document data sources).
Demonstrate how the LCA impacts were quantified.
Include modules A1-A3 in the system boundary at a minimum.
To conduct an interiors life cycle assessment, consider following these steps as guidance:
Step 1: Scope of Work: Define the project boundary and scope of work based on the elements of construction that are under the project’s control.
Step 2: Bill of Materials: Compile a list of all materials included in the interiors project. Such materials and products include but are not limited to: flooring, walls and wall systems, glass and glass systems, furniture, lighting, doors, door frames/door hardware, interior finishes, non-structural partitions, piping, plumbing, fixtures, ductwork, cabling, and fire suppression systems. Include expected or actual quantities of all the materials included in the bill of materials. Indicate reused materials, if any. The estimate of material quantities must be verified by a design professional on the project.
Step 3: Life Cycle Analysis
: The ISO 14044-compliant LCA process should demonstrate a complete analysis of the full project scope. Therefore, gather life-cycle impact data for 95% or more of all the materials in the project scope of work (by floor area, quantity, or bill of materials line items). If LCA data are not available for 95% of all materials, provide a narrative describing data limitations. Quantify the life-cycle impact by combining appropriate life cycle impact data with the quantity of materials from Step 2. If software or tools do not include all the materials in the project scope of work from Step 2, seek out EPDs or product-specific LCA reports to fill in data gaps. The following are preferred sources of product EPD or LCA data and are listed in order of data quality and preference:
Product-specific EPD or LCA data that meets requirements of ISO 21930-2017 and EN 15804-2019.
Product-specific EPD or LCA data that meets older versions of ISO 21930 and EN 15804 standards.
Industry-wide Type III EPDs for the product category.
Other EPD or LCA data with datasets that has the same geographical applicability or coverage as per ISO 14044 i.e. that is representative of the average dataset for the region.
Critically reviewed LCA studies as defined in ISO 14044, Section 6, or peer reviewed LCA studies.
Any of the above data sources are acceptable for life cycle impact reporting for the interiors project life cycle analysis. If any reused elements are included in the project, follow calculation guidance for “small scale reuse” as found in the LEED v4 BD+C Reference Guide for credit: Building Lifecycle Impact Reduction.
Step 4: Comparison to Baseline. If the project team is seeking path 2 or path 3 of this credit option, the team must develop a baseline interiors life cycle assessment for the project. To develop the baseline interior, demonstrate that both the baseline and proposed project have the same (or are functionally equivalent) for the following parameters:
a. Project size/gross floor area
c. Operational energy usage.
d. System boundaries of tools data sources used to conduct the study.
e. Service life of the project and materials.
Develop a baseline building by using industry standard data for the project scope of work. The baseline building must be representative of the type of work typical for the project location and design program.
Next, select products that have improved life cycle impacts compared to the baseline products that will be installed in the final project (or reuse
elements). Collect life-cycle impact data on improved products/materials following the recommendations for data sources in Step 3. Quantify the impacts of the baseline and proposed cases and compare the results. Demonstrate impact reductions below the baseline building interiors project as described in the credit. This includes:
Functional equivalence for baseline and proposed projects.
Description of the software tools, product-specific LCAs / EPDs, and other data sources used to quantify impacts of the materials/assemblies in the study. Document any assumptions on filling-in data gaps.
Confirm that the data sources and data sets used to develop the baseline and proposed design analysis are equivalent. Indicate where data sources that have changed (i.e. have been optimized) from the baseline to the proposed case.
Step 5: Reporting. Document the interiors LCA and (if attempted) the results from comparison against the baseline building. Complete the LEED Form and include summary reports as necessary to document assumptions and compile results. Include impact results and percent reductions (if applicable) for the selected impact categories. List optimization strategies made to the project design that resulted in reductions to GWP
Under Further Explanation, add the following sections::
The following standards and technical guides are helpful references for reuse
and designing for flexibility and disassembly:
ISO 20887:2020. Sustainability in buildings and civil engineering works — Design for disassembly and adaptability — Principles, requirements and guidance.
AIA Practice Guide: Design for Adaptability, Deconstruction, and Reuse.
City of Seattle, King County, WA: DfD – Design for Disassembly in the Built Environment.
Ellen MacArthur Foundation: Accelerating the Circular Economy through Commercial Deconstruction and Reuse.
Buildings As Material Banks – EU. Framework for Policies, Regulations and Standards.
Public Architecture / USGBC: Design for Reuse Primer.
Documentation requirements for Option 1:
Quantify the structural, nonstructural and/or interior nonstructural elements reused in the project based on cost.
Documentation requirements for Option 2:
Quantify the amount of elements that are designed for flexibility and disassembly per the category types pursued in the design and construction.
Upload drawing(s) or plan(s) that show aspects of the project’s design for interior flexibility and disassembly.
Documentation requirements for Option 3:
Description of the scope and analysis process for Optimized and Baseline building interior
Life cycle impact assessment summary showing outputs of proposed building interior
projects with % change from baseline interior project for all applicable impact indicators.
Summary of LCAs/EPDs and any other data sources used for baseline and proposed interior projects.