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Design for Enhanced Resilience

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Pilot-Credits IPpc99: Design for Enhanced Resilience 1-2 points

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Intent

Design and construct buildings that can resist, with minimal damage, reasonably expected natural disasters and weather events (i.e. flooding, hurricanes/high winds, tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, drought, wildfires, landslides, extreme heat, and winter storms).

Requirements

For any two of the top three hazard-related risks identified in the Hazard Assessment Prerequisite, IPpc98 - Assessment and Planning for Resilience, implement the mitigation strategy processes described below receiving one point per hazard for a maximum of 2 points. If more than two hazard-related risks are identified, project teams may at their option choose to include more than two however no additional points will be earned. Specific requirements for each hazard type are described below.

Outside the United States, project teams may use the U.S. standards if applicable or local equivalent standards, whichever are more stringent, and document their equivalence. If the project team completed the Climate Related Risk Management Planning Option 1 in IPpc98, incorporate any agreed-upon parameters into the hazard mitigation strategies.

See the referenced standards associated with specific credit hazards.

Implementation

Hazard-Specific design measures

Flooding
Option 1: Flooding-Specific design measures

RELi V2.0 Standards

Provide permanent back-up power, switching gear and / or power hook-ups and infrastructure for temporary generators to provide power for critical utilities such as HVAC and boilers. Locate equipment and infrastructure above the 500 year floodplain. For existing facilities with switch gear, infrastructure and / or fuel storage located below the 500 year floodplain elevation, develop a detailed flood protection plan and provide on-site supplies and infrastructure for protecting electrical switch gear / critical infrastructure from flood water. Modify existing infrastructure in combination with the protection plan if needed to ensure protection.

If the equipment is not sufficiently elevated as described as above, then dry flood protection such as flood gates, walls, doors and/ or inflatable barriers must be provided to prevent water intrusion into these vulnerable areas. Flood depth, duration, velocity, and condition of water should be considered (including floating debris). Flood protection must be provided at least the 500 year flood level height if known, otherwise 3 ft. (91 cm) above the known Base Flood Elevation (100 year flood level) or Advisory Base Flood Elevation.

Floodplain: Avoid areas within 500 year floodplain.

Sites Not Permitted: Building on green field sites below the 500 year floodplain is not permitted.

For new facilities on previously developed locations and / or within existing built environments such as cities or towns located below the 500 year floodplain: Provide a permanent flood control mitigation system protecting the entire facility and / or protect critical infrastructure and locate key functions and service areas above the 500 year floodplain to provide for business continuity. If the 500 year floodplain is not available/has not been mapped for your location, use the 100 year floodplain and add three feet (1 meter) to that measurement. If neither floodplain is available, a civil engineer/engineering team must conduct an analysis to determine the 500 year floodplain.

For existing facilities with switch gear, infrastructure and / or fuel storage located below the 500 year floodplain elevation, develop a detailed flood protection plan and provide on-site supplies and infrastructure for protecting electrical switch gear / critical infrastructure from flood water. Modify existing infrastructure in combination with the protection plan if needed to ensure protection.

For all new structures: prevent sewage backflow

OR

Option 2: Flooding-Specific design measures

The lowest occupied floor’s lowest horizontal structural member must be a minimum of three feet (1 meter) above the FEMA-defined base flood elevation (BFE+3), as defined for FEMA NFIP Zone V and recommended for Coastal Zone A. As an alternative, in commercial projects only, dry flood-proofing practices may be followed and certified by a Licensed Engineer for any spaces located below BFE+3.

OR

Meet Executive Order (EO) 13690 Federal Flood Risk Management Standard. But flood elevation must be at least 3 feet (1 meter) above the known Base Flood Elevation (100 year level flood).

Foundations in the Coastal Zone A shall be the same as required in the Coastal Zone V.

Primary mechanical and electrical equipment, including HVAC equipment, water heating equipment, electrical panels, and generators, must follow FEMA 55 guidelines and FEMA Technical Bulletins and Advisories for wet and dry flood-proofing. All sewer connections must include sewer backflow preventers at the point of entry into the building on the main discharge sewer line.

1 Meeting minimum regulatory and code requirements for the siting, design, and construction of a building does not guarantee that the building will be safe from all hazard effects. Risk to the building still exists. It is up to the designer and building owner to determine the amount of acceptable risk. FEMA Publication 55 – Coastal Construction Manual

Sea Level Rise

Sea Level Rise-Specific design measures

Avoid coastal zones inundated by sea level rise 4 feet (122 cm) and above, or provide an engineering solution as follows:

  • Complete project by 2020: areas inundated by more than 4’ (122 cm) up to 5’ (152 cm) sea level rise.
  • Complete project by 2022 (and beyond): areas inundated by more than 5’ (152 cm) up to 6’ (183 cm) sea level

Storm Surge: Based on the sea level rise defined in this checklist, projects (except for significant, high-risk and / or mission critical projects) should accommodate a Category (2) hurricane and storm surge with minimal or no interruption to the services, provided from the facility, beyond the immediate time frame of the storm. Provide for Category (4) hurricane and storm surge mitigation with expectation that there may be an interruption to non-essential functions and services provided by the facility beyond the immediate time frame of the storm. Provide permanent infrastructure as required to protect the entire facility and / or protect critical infrastructure. Protect or locate key functions and service areas above the Category (4) surge elevation to provide for emergency operations. Significant, high-risk and / or mission critical projects should accommodate and mitigate Category three (3) and five (5) storms respectively.

Use NOAA SLOSH Model data to interpolate storm surge. In the absence of SLOSH Model data use the Surging Seas Threat Map and Forecasting Tools to establish storm surge scenarios that take into account sea level rise. Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge for 2022 and beyond should use the NOAA 2012 Sea Level Rise "High Scenario" combined with a 1 in 100 year flood (Extreme Flood) to determine water levels for planning purposes.

Develop an Inundation Map for the project as described by Architecture 2030 using the following tools:

  1. Inundation Mapping Swatch - 2030 Palette
  2. Implement Coastal Adaptation Strategies
  3. Coastal Adaptation Strategies Swatch - 2030 Palette
  4. Implement Living Shoreline Strategies
  5. Living Shorelines Swatch - 2030 Palette

Wildfire

Wildfire-Specific design measures

Demonstrate compliance with ICC's 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

Hail

Hail-Specific design measure

Meet the FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail” Specific Design Requirements for Hail.

Hurricanes and High-Wind Areas

Option 1: Hurricane and High-Wind design measures

Hurricane Areas: All commercial projects, including multi-family residential projects where applicable, in hurricane zones must be designed in accordance with the following:

High-Wind (Non-Hurricane) Areas: All commercial projects, including multi-family residential projects were applcable, located in non-hurricane zones must be designed in accordance with the following:

  • FORTIFIED Commercial-High Wind & Hail - Bronze, Silver, or Gold Level

OR

Option 2: High-Wind (Non-Hurricane) Area design measures:

If project is located within FEMA Wind Zone II (160 mph /258 kmh), Zone III (200 mph/322 kmh), or Zone IV (250 mph/402 kmh), or FEMA Special Wind Regions, then all structures must incorporate wind design measures per the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7-10).

Tornado Areas

Option 1: Tornado-Specific design measures

Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III or IV with public/community uses and multifamily housing facilities must include safe rooms designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-361, Safe Rooms for Tornadoes and Hurricanes: Guidance for Community and Residential Safe Rooms, Third Edition (2015)

Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III and IV without community uses must include refuge areas designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-431 Tornado Protection: Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings.

OR

Option 2: Tornado-Specific design measures

FEMA Standards

If a tornado shelter is installed, it is recommended that it meet the requirements of FEMA 320 “Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business,” FEMA 361 “Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms,” or the International Code Council & National Storm Shelter Association (ICC/NSSA) - ICC-500 “Standard on the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters.”

Earthquake

Earthquake-Specific design measures

Design to meet at least a Silver rating using the Arup REDi Rating System: Resilience-based Earthquake Design Initiative for the Next Generation of Buildings. Provide a signed letter from a Licensed Engineer that describes how the project met or will meet the REDi Silver rating.

Tsunami

Tsunami-Specific design measures

Design and construct according to standards detailed in Designing for Tsunamis: Seven Principles for Planning and Designing for Tsunami Hazards (by NOAA, USGS, FEMA, NSF, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington), March 2001 edition2.

Wildfire

Wildfire-Specific design measures

Demonstrate compliance with ICC's 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

Drought

Drought-Specific design measures

Reduce the project's landscape water requirement by at least fifty percent (50%) per the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Outdoor Water Use Reduction credit and use non-potable or non-municipal water sources as outlined in the WE credit.

In addition, reduce flush and flow fixture water use per the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Indoor Water Use Reduction (excluding appliance and process water) by at least forty percent (40%).

Follow the requirements of the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Outdoor Water Use Reduction and LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Indoor Water Use Reduction credits to demonstrate compliance with the stated thresholds of this pilot credit.

Landslides and unstable soils

Landslide-Specific design measures

Demonstrate that any steep-slope (≥ 15% or 6.75⁰) soils and underlying geology on the building site and uphill from the building site have been investigated through a signed report from a geotechnical engineer.

Either provide a signed letter from a geotechnical engineer showing that landslides pose minimal landslide risk or a letter from professional engineer indicating that mitigation strategies for the project result in minimal landslide risk.

Extreme Heat

Extreme Heat-Specific design measures

The project should document how it meets a minimum of six extreme heat mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria: Building Site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.

The six selected strategies must fall in at least two of these criteria. Suggested strategies are listed below but the list should not be considered comprehensive. Teams should identify strategies that are specific to their local conditions—for example, hot/dry versus hot/humid conditions dictate very different approaches to heat mitigation.

Building Site

  • Provide shaded external spaces adjacent to buildings for potential use during extreme heat events. Include access to power and water services.
  • Maximize open-grid pavement systems.
  • Provide high-reflectivity paving materials, such as light concrete or white aggregate.
  • Provide native or adapted planting to reduce micro temperatures and increase shading.
  • Provide evaporative cooling solutions through fountains, misters, water features, etc.
  • Orient buildings and massing to self-shade in summer and extreme heat conditions.
  • Provide outdoor cooling stations that can run on emergency backup power.
  • Demonstrate that the building is less than one-quarter mile from an emergency cooling station.

Building Enclosure

  • Provide high levels of insulation to minimize heat gains through building envelope (see Thermal Habitability under LEED Pilot Credit 100 for more information).
  • Provide high levels of internal thermal mass and provisions for passive night-time flushing where significant diurnal temperature swings occur (i.e., where night-time cooling of the mass can occur).
  • Design for airtight construction and controlled ventilation and solar heat gain to limit external air flow when exterior hotter conditions occur.
  • Provide lower Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) glass, particularly on east and west facades.
  • Design for natural ventilation using operable windows, specialized vents, or other means.
  • Design enclosure systems with exterior shading devices to minimize solar heat gain during peak summer conditions.
  • Provide high-reflectivity roofing materials meeting Cool Roof Rating Council standards.
  • Provide indoor cooling stations that can run on emergency backup power.

Building Systems

  • For those climates where active cooling is already required, design for an increased cooling load over time (i.e., adequate space in the mechanical room to install a larger system).
  • Provide whole-building fan for night flushing with the capacity to power that fan with emergency backup power, such as: Provide operable windows and / or non-powered natural ventilation and passive cooling and / or provide adequate power to operate ventilation fans and / or provide active cooling
  • Design for efficient cooling systems that incorporate such features as building-based renewable technologies, groundwater cooling loop, or earth-tube cooling systems.
  • Allow for future flexibility in cooling systems by providing space for future electrical, water, ductwork, radiant cooling etc. to be added as needed.
  • Design systems for ties to renewable energy sources/district energy solutions, such as: Meet Green-E Criteria for renewable energy qualifications. The following sources are included: Solar Electric, Solar thermal, wind, clean bio-mass / bio-digestion and micro-hydro.

Winter Storms

Winter Storms-Specific design measures

The project should document how it meets a minimum of six winter storm mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria: Building Site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.

The six selected strategies must fall in at least two of these criteria. Suggested strategies are listed below but the list should not be considered comprehensive. Teams should identify strategies that are specific to their local conditions—for example, areas that regularly experience blizzards, heavy snowfall, ice storms, or extreme cold temperatures dictate very different approaches to winter storm mitigation compared to typically mild climates that may experience freezing rain conditions or sudden freezing temperatures that dictate very different approaches to winter storm mitigation.

Building Site

  • Provide adequate ingress/egress for vehicles, snow removal equipment, and emergency vehicles to anticipate winter storm conditions.
  • Provide a snow-removal plan that addresses the following: compatible road material for any surface parking areas to accommodate snow removal equipment and potential sanding or de-icing strategies. Provide areas for accumulated snow wherever off-site snow removal is not possible. Provide a roof snow removal plan. Provide safe walking surfaces to exterior parking areas. If heated sidewalks or drives are implemented, consider using renewable energy systems as an energy source.
  • Specify native or adapted planting with a capacity for heavy snow loads that may occur earlier or later in the season in full leaf stages and/or species that are more freeze-tolerant in unseasonal cold snaps.

Building Enclosure

  • Provide high levels of building insulation to minimize heat loss through building envelope. (See Thermal Habitability under LEED Resilience Pilot Credit IPpc100 for more information)
  • Provide high levels of thermal mass where significant diurnal temperature swings occur (i.e. where daytime storage of heat can occur]
  • Provide hardening strategies appropriate to mitigating winter storms for the project region, such as providing a high-performance roof that is rated for higher-than-code wind velocities.
  • Provide hardening of the roof system to prevent potential collapse by designing the snow loads to be 1.2 times the ground snow loads (Pg) shown in ASCE 7 (or the locally adopted ground snow loads in Case Study areas).
  • Provide protection against the potential for ice dam formation on low-sloped roofs by preventing ice from forming around drains. For steep-sloped roofs, designs should include increased attic insulation, sealed ceiling penetrations, and applying a waterproof membrane on roof deck at roof edge (ice and water barrier). This moisture barrier should extend from the roof edge to at least 2 ft. (61 cm) towards the interior of the building, beyond the exterior wall enclosing conditioned space. No localized heat source should be installed in non-conditioned attic space such that it creates localized heating of the roof surface; un-insulated recessed lights shall not be installed where they could cause localized heating of the roof surface. Provide all attic or roof access doors between conditioned and non-conditioned space with proper insulation, sealant and weather-stripping or gaskets and treat them as exterior doors.
  • Provide protection against frozen pipes so that building design prohibits water pipe runs in exterior walls and unheated spaces. Insulate/seal all wall, door, and wall penetrations. Monitor interior building temperature to prevent freezing of interior piping such as domestic water and fire protection sprinkler systems.
  • Prepare a Snow Event Response and Removal Plan based upon the FEMA Snow Load Safety Guide. Amongst project-specific strategies developed, the Plan should include defining at what point snow removal should be initiated as well as how access will be provided to roof for snow removal.

Building Systems

  • Prepare a plan for how backup power would be provided for disruptions in electrical power, which is a common occurrence during winter storms. This does not require implementation of a backup power system, just a written plan. For guidance on developing a plan, refer to Option 2: Provide Backup Power as detailed in LEED pilot credit IPpc100 Passive Survivability and Back-up Power During Disruptions.
  • Prepare a Disaster Preparedness Plan, as described in LEED IPpc#98 in Option 2: Emergency Preparedness Planning. This path provides a planning roadmap to anticipate disruptions of any type and prepares a building owner for a proactive response and recovery plan, including sheltering in place and continuous operations strategies.

Documentation

General

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  • Pilot Credit Survey

    Flooding

    Documenting Flooding-Specific design measures

    Submit the following documentation to demonstrate compliance with above standards.

    • Site plan drawing showing locations and product documentation of backflow preventers used on project.
    • Section and plan drawings showing major equipment locations.
    • Section and plan drawings showing lowest occupied floor’s lowest structural horizontal member demonstrating that it is a minimum of five (5) feet (1.5 meters) above the FEMA-defined base flood elevation (BFE+5), as defined for FEMA NFIP Zone V and recommended for Coast Zone A, OR as an alternative, in commercial projects only, licensed engineer-stamped plans verifying that dry flood-proofing practices have been followed for any spaces located below BFE+5.

    Hurricane and High-Wind Areas

    Documenting Option 1: Hurricane and High-Wind design measures

    Hurricane Areas: For non-residential projects in hurricane zones provide one of the following:

    Documenting Option 2: High-Wind (Non-Hurricane) Area design measures:
    • If project is located within FEMA Wind Zone II (160 mph/257 kmh), Zone III (200 mph/322kmh), or Zone IV (250 mph/402 kmh), or Special Wind Regions, then all structures must incorporate wind design measures per the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7-10).
    • Signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet wind standards.

    Tornado Areas

    Documenting Tornado-Specific design measures

    Submit the following documentation to demonstrate compliance with above standards.

    • Plan drawing showing location and details about the construction of safe room for public/community project or safe refuge area for non-public project (if applicable).

    Earthquake

    Documenting Earthquake-Specific design measures

    Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Engineer that describes how the project met or will meet REDi Seismic Design standards.

    Tsunami

    Documenting Tsunami-Specific design measures

    Provide a signed Executive Summary of a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet NOAA principles for Tsunami design.
    Provide a narrative, plan and section drawings that describe vertical evacuation design including warning system and signage guiding evacuees.

    Wildfire

    Documenting Wildfire-Specific design measures

    Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

    Drought

    Documenting Drought-Specific design measures

    Follow the requirements of the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Outdoor Water Use Reduction and LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Indoor Water Use Reduction credits to demonstrate compliance with the stated thresholds of this pilot credit.

    Landslides and unstable soils

    Documenting Landslide-Specific design measures
    • Provide a signed report from a geotechnical engineer showing that any steep-slope (≥ 15% or 6.75⁰) soils and underlying geology on the building site and uphill from the building site have been investigated.
    • Provide a contour map of site highlighting any areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75⁰) and showing landslide-prone soils.
    • Provide a contour map showing the larger area that extends above the building site showing areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75⁰) and landslide-prone soils
    • Provide a signed letter from a geotechnical engineer showing that landslides pose minimal risk.
    • OR

    • Provide a signed letter from a licensed engineer indicating that mitigations strategies for the project result in minimal landslide risk.
    • Extreme Heat

      Documenting Extreme Heat-Specific design measures
      • Demonstrate credit compliance by submitting documentation for how the project meets a minimum of six extreme heat mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria detailed in the Implementation section of this credit: Building Site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.
      • Provide drawings and/or site plans, as applicable, showing how mitigation strategies were incorporated into the design. Provide a brief narrative summarizing the design strategies implemented signed by a Licensed Design Professional.

      Winter Storms

      Documenting Winter Storms-Specific design measures

      Demonstrate credit compliance by submitting documentation for how the project meets a minimum of six winter storm mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria detailed in the Implementation section of this credit: Building site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.

      • Demonstrate how the building design has mitigated the impacts of winter storms through design-specific measures. Provide drawings and/or site plans, as applicable, showing how mitigation strategies were incorporated into the design. Provide a brief narrative signed by a Licensed Design Professional identifying the design strategies implemented.
      • To demonstrate that an adequate emergency power plan has been prepared for the critical loads of the building being served, consider using the guidelines found in LEED IPpc100 Option 2: Provide Backup Power. Plans for emergency power requirements may be met with, but not limited to, fuel-fired backup generators, a solar-electric system with battery storage, or a micro-grid.
      • To demonstrate compliance for the written Disaster Preparedness Plan strategy, EITHER submit the following two completed Red Cross forms signed by Owner:
      • To confirm a higher-than code roof structural design for snow loads - provide roof system structural design or letter from project’s licensed structural engineer confirming the design of snow loads to be 1.2 times the ground snow loads (Pg) shown in ASCE 7 (or the locally adopted ground snow loads in Case Study areas).
      • To confirm the following design elements are incorporated to protect against ice dam formation, provide a letter from a licensed architect confirming protection against the potential for ice dam formation. For low-sloped roofs, prevent ice from forming around drains. For steep-sloped roofs, designs should include increased attic insulation, sealing ceiling penetrations, and applying a waterproof membrane on roof deck at roof edge (ice and water barrier). No localized heat source should be installed in non-conditioned attic space such that it creates localized heating of the roof surface; un-insulated recessed lights shall not be installed where they could cause localized heating of the roof surface. Provide all attic or roof access doors between conditioned and non-conditioned space with proper insulation, sealant and weather-stripping or gaskets and they should be treated as exterior doors.
      • To confirm a snow removal plan is to be included for the building, ensure that a documented roof snow removal plan is addressed.
      • To confirm the following design elements are incorporated to protect against the potential for freezing pipes, provide a letter from a licensed architect confirming the following design measures are included. Provide protection against frozen pipes so that building design prohibits water pipe runs in exterior walls and unheated spaces. Insulate/seal all wall, door, and wall penetrations. Monitor interior building temperature to prevent freezing of interior piping such as domestic water and fire protection sprinkler systems.
      • To confirm that a Snow Event Response and Removal Plan has been developed based upon the FEMA Snow Load Safety Guide, provide a copy of the plan. Amongst project-specific strategies developed, the Plan should include defining at what point snow removal should be initiated as well as how access will be provided to roof for snow removal (i.e. stairs or a permanently affixed ladder, etc.).
    APPENDIX: ISSUES TO CONSIDER
    Flooding

    Flooding can result from storm surge associated with tropical storms, from exceptional tides, from intense rainfall events that result in rivers or streams jumping their banks, and from rapid ice-melt in late winter or spring. In coastal areas, rising sea level will greatly exacerbate flooding, increasing both its frequency and severity. No matter what the cause of flooding, the solutions for achieving greater resilience are much the same.

    Referenced Standards

    Tornado

    In the case of tornadoes, in which winds can exceed 200 miles per hour (322 kmh) - and even 300 mph (483 kmh) in the largest tornadoes - protecting the building usually isn't practical, and solutions involve sheltering occupants.
    Referenced Standards

    High Winds

    High winds can result from tropical storms and hurricanes, from localized thunderstorms, from more extensive regional storm systems (including derechos), from region-specific conditions (such as the Chinook winds that are common on the eastern slope of the northern Rockies in late-winter and spring), and in the most extreme case, tornadoes. With climate change, weather conditions are predicted to become more extreme, and this will mean increased wind events in many areas.
    Designing to achieve resilience to high winds is a well-established structural engineering discipline.

    Referenced Standards
    • ASCE/SEI 7-10
    • FEMA 543, Design Guide for Improving Critical Facility Safety from Flooding and High Winds: Providing Protection to People and Buildings (2007)
    • FORTIFIED Commercial Standards
    • Earthquake

      Earthquakes are geologic events associated with movement of the Earth's tectonic plates. As such, earthquake activity is generally limited to very specific regions where fault lines exist between these plates. In some cases, seismic activity is caused or exacerbated by human activities, such as fracking—resulting in earthquakes in places that have not previously experienced them. The most seismically active regions are well-known, and building codes in these locations generally call for specific measures to allow occupants to escape buildings safely, however, some codes allow renovation and continued use of existing buildings that do not meet current seismic code. Resilience to earthquake damage generally goes further than simply providing for the safe egress from buildings, and seeks to minimize damage to buildings so that they can return quickly to functionality.

      Referenced Standards

      Arup REDi Rating System: Resilience- based Earthquake Design Initiative for the Next Generation of Buildings

      Tsunami

      Tsunamis are hazards that propagate from specialized seismic events, and that can result in sudden and extreme flooding and erosion of coastal areas. Unlike other forms of flooding, however, they are not predictable over a specific time horizon; there may be minutes' to a few hours' warning of the arrival of tsunamis.

      Referenced Standards
      Wildfire

      Wildfire has been a natural part of ecosystems for millions of years, particularly in regions in which there is a significant dry season. This becomes a problem when development extends into these traditionally fire-managed ecosystems, such as are found in Southern California, Colorado, and much of the West. Drought, which climate models predict will become more frequent and of longer duration in some areas, increases wildfire risk, as does the die-off of trees that can occur when warming winters fail to keep wood-boring beetles in check, as has occurred in the Northern Rockies in recent decades.

      Referenced Standards

      Additional references
      University of California Publication 8228
      NFPA FWC20508
      FEMA P-754

      Drought

      Cycles of drought have been common for millions of years, as geologic evidence shows. In the Western United States, climate change models predict that drought will increase in frequency and severity. And drought may even become a problem in areas where drought has been less common, such as in the Southeastern U.S. The characteristics of reservoirs also affect the impact that droughts cause; in the East, reservoirs tend to be shallower, with less capacity to deal with periodic fluctuations in precipitation. The depletion of aquifers in some regions will also decrease our capacity to deal with droughts.

      Strategies for dealing with drought include a wide range of water conservation measures, both indoors and outdoors. Water catchment and storage can also play into a suite of solutions.

      Landslides and unstable soils

      Landslides are a significant hazard in areas with certain soil/geologic conditions and in which steep slopes are found either on the building site or uphill of that building site. Landslide risks are exacerbated by heavy rainfall, seismic events, and the loss of vegetation from wildfires, commercial lumber harvesting operations, or from large-scale die-offs of trees due to the effects of climate change.

      Extreme Heat

      According to the U.S. EPA “Extreme heat event (EHE) conditions are defined by summertime weather that is substantially hotter and/or more humid than average for a location at that time of year. Because how hot it feels depends on the interaction of multiple meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, humidity, cloud cover), EHE criteria typically shift by location and time of year.”
      Extreme heat events can have significant adverse health effects by stressing the body’s ability to maintain an ideal internal temperature, leading to increased mortality particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and low income. Concerns are greatest when the number of hot days lengthen to weeks or more. Their impacts are particularly significant in urban settings due to the urban heat island effect.

      Winter Storms

      Winter storms and cold waves were the second largest cause of insured U.S. catastrophe losses for the period of 2006–2015 according to Munich Re NatCatSERVICE and Property Claim Services (PCS). While frozen pipes are the leading cause of property damage due to winter weather, record snowfalls in recent years have resulted in roof collapses on businesses from Arizona to New England. This can lead to significant damage to both the building and the contents and prolong the recovery period after the snow melts. Like frozen pipes, ice dams can result in severe water damage that will put businesses at risk. Roof collapse and ice dams are significant building dangers caused by snow on the roof; an accumulation of snow on the roof beyond the load capacity of the roof leads to roof collapse, and ice dams on sloped roofs are caused by snow on the roof in combination with temperature. As with other types of severe storms, severe winter weather can also cause a disruption in electrical power.

      According to FEMA: “A winter storm occurs when there is significant precipitation and the temperature is low enough that precipitation forms as sleet or snow, or when rain turns to ice. A winter storm can range from freezing rain and ice, to moderate snowfall over a few hours, to a blizzard that lasts for several days. Many winter storms are accompanied by dangerously low temperatures. Winter storms (and colder than normal temperatures) can happen in every region of the country and can occur from early autumn to late spring depending on the region.”

      One of the most common impacts of winter storms is loss of power that can last for days or weeks. Project teams should assess whether winter storms could impact essential operations or access to the site and develop mitigation strategies that align with programmatic priorities identified by the owner and design team.

      Additional General Issues to Consider

      Direct Human Actions

      Human-induced hazards are events caused by—often intentional—human actions. The impact of these events ranges from disruption of municipal area operations (such as during a strike), to undue use of force by authorities (such in response to peaceful protests), to serious harm at a limited scale (such as during a shooting), to widespread death and destruction at a neighborhood scale (such as during detonation of an improvised explosive device). Civil unrest, government intrusion, strikes, active shootings, and improvised explosive devices are some of the human-induced hazards that a facility may face. Additionally as our energy infrastructure becomes more complex and increasingly controlled by Internet-based, "smart" technology, there are more points of accidental failure and also risk of hacking into controls.

      While specific requirements for resilience measures related to direct human actions and equipment malfunctions for other reasons are not included in this credit, design teams are encouraged to address passive survivability measures covered in LEED Resilience Pilot Credit IPpc100.

      Consider conducting a Comprehensive Safety Report which outlines risks associated with some of the most disruptive Human Induced Hazards.

      IBHS Background [for Resources]
      The Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) is an independent, nonprofit, scientific research and communications organization supported by the property insurance industry.

      FORTIFIED Commercial™: Voluntary, superior construction standard and designation program designed by IBHS for new/existing construction that addresses specific natural hazard risks and recommendations for reducing damage

      • FORTIFIED Commercial™–Hurricane for hurricane-prone areas
      • FORTIFIED Commercial™–High Wind & Hail for non-hurricane-prone areas
      • 3 designation levels—Bronze, Silver and Gold—for different budgets and resilience goals
      • Visit DisasterSafety.org/fortified/commercial
    See all forum discussions about this credit »

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    Intent

    Design and construct buildings that can resist, with minimal damage, reasonably expected natural disasters and weather events (i.e. flooding, hurricanes/high winds, tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, drought, wildfires, landslides, extreme heat, and winter storms).

    Requirements

    For any two of the top three hazard-related risks identified in the Hazard Assessment Prerequisite, IPpc98 - Assessment and Planning for Resilience, implement the mitigation strategy processes described below receiving one point per hazard for a maximum of 2 points. If more than two hazard-related risks are identified, project teams may at their option choose to include more than two however no additional points will be earned. Specific requirements for each hazard type are described below.

    Outside the United States, project teams may use the U.S. standards if applicable or local equivalent standards, whichever are more stringent, and document their equivalence. If the project team completed the Climate Related Risk Management Planning Option 1 in IPpc98, incorporate any agreed-upon parameters into the hazard mitigation strategies.

    See the referenced standards associated with specific credit hazards.

    Implementation

    Hazard-Specific design measures

    Flooding
    Option 1: Flooding-Specific design measures

    RELi V2.0 Standards

    Provide permanent back-up power, switching gear and / or power hook-ups and infrastructure for temporary generators to provide power for critical utilities such as HVAC and boilers. Locate equipment and infrastructure above the 500 year floodplain. For existing facilities with switch gear, infrastructure and / or fuel storage located below the 500 year floodplain elevation, develop a detailed flood protection plan and provide on-site supplies and infrastructure for protecting electrical switch gear / critical infrastructure from flood water. Modify existing infrastructure in combination with the protection plan if needed to ensure protection.

    If the equipment is not sufficiently elevated as described as above, then dry flood protection such as flood gates, walls, doors and/ or inflatable barriers must be provided to prevent water intrusion into these vulnerable areas. Flood depth, duration, velocity, and condition of water should be considered (including floating debris). Flood protection must be provided at least the 500 year flood level height if known, otherwise 3 ft. (91 cm) above the known Base Flood Elevation (100 year flood level) or Advisory Base Flood Elevation.

    Floodplain: Avoid areas within 500 year floodplain.

    Sites Not Permitted: Building on green field sites below the 500 year floodplain is not permitted.

    For new facilities on previously developed locations and / or within existing built environments such as cities or towns located below the 500 year floodplain: Provide a permanent flood control mitigation system protecting the entire facility and / or protect critical infrastructure and locate key functions and service areas above the 500 year floodplain to provide for business continuity. If the 500 year floodplain is not available/has not been mapped for your location, use the 100 year floodplain and add three feet (1 meter) to that measurement. If neither floodplain is available, a civil engineer/engineering team must conduct an analysis to determine the 500 year floodplain.

    For existing facilities with switch gear, infrastructure and / or fuel storage located below the 500 year floodplain elevation, develop a detailed flood protection plan and provide on-site supplies and infrastructure for protecting electrical switch gear / critical infrastructure from flood water. Modify existing infrastructure in combination with the protection plan if needed to ensure protection.

    For all new structures: prevent sewage backflow

    OR

    Option 2: Flooding-Specific design measures

    The lowest occupied floor’s lowest horizontal structural member must be a minimum of three feet (1 meter) above the FEMA-defined base flood elevation (BFE+3), as defined for FEMA NFIP Zone V and recommended for Coastal Zone A. As an alternative, in commercial projects only, dry flood-proofing practices may be followed and certified by a Licensed Engineer for any spaces located below BFE+3.

    OR

    Meet Executive Order (EO) 13690 Federal Flood Risk Management Standard. But flood elevation must be at least 3 feet (1 meter) above the known Base Flood Elevation (100 year level flood).

    Foundations in the Coastal Zone A shall be the same as required in the Coastal Zone V.

    Primary mechanical and electrical equipment, including HVAC equipment, water heating equipment, electrical panels, and generators, must follow FEMA 55 guidelines and FEMA Technical Bulletins and Advisories for wet and dry flood-proofing. All sewer connections must include sewer backflow preventers at the point of entry into the building on the main discharge sewer line.

    1 Meeting minimum regulatory and code requirements for the siting, design, and construction of a building does not guarantee that the building will be safe from all hazard effects. Risk to the building still exists. It is up to the designer and building owner to determine the amount of acceptable risk. FEMA Publication 55 – Coastal Construction Manual

    Sea Level Rise

    Sea Level Rise-Specific design measures

    Avoid coastal zones inundated by sea level rise 4 feet (122 cm) and above, or provide an engineering solution as follows:

    • Complete project by 2020: areas inundated by more than 4’ (122 cm) up to 5’ (152 cm) sea level rise.
    • Complete project by 2022 (and beyond): areas inundated by more than 5’ (152 cm) up to 6’ (183 cm) sea level

    Storm Surge: Based on the sea level rise defined in this checklist, projects (except for significant, high-risk and / or mission critical projects) should accommodate a Category (2) hurricane and storm surge with minimal or no interruption to the services, provided from the facility, beyond the immediate time frame of the storm. Provide for Category (4) hurricane and storm surge mitigation with expectation that there may be an interruption to non-essential functions and services provided by the facility beyond the immediate time frame of the storm. Provide permanent infrastructure as required to protect the entire facility and / or protect critical infrastructure. Protect or locate key functions and service areas above the Category (4) surge elevation to provide for emergency operations. Significant, high-risk and / or mission critical projects should accommodate and mitigate Category three (3) and five (5) storms respectively.

    Use NOAA SLOSH Model data to interpolate storm surge. In the absence of SLOSH Model data use the Surging Seas Threat Map and Forecasting Tools to establish storm surge scenarios that take into account sea level rise. Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge for 2022 and beyond should use the NOAA 2012 Sea Level Rise "High Scenario" combined with a 1 in 100 year flood (Extreme Flood) to determine water levels for planning purposes.

    Develop an Inundation Map for the project as described by Architecture 2030 using the following tools:

    1. Inundation Mapping Swatch - 2030 Palette
    2. Implement Coastal Adaptation Strategies
    3. Coastal Adaptation Strategies Swatch - 2030 Palette
    4. Implement Living Shoreline Strategies
    5. Living Shorelines Swatch - 2030 Palette

    Wildfire

    Wildfire-Specific design measures

    Demonstrate compliance with ICC's 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

    Hail

    Hail-Specific design measure

    Meet the FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail” Specific Design Requirements for Hail.

    Hurricanes and High-Wind Areas

    Option 1: Hurricane and High-Wind design measures

    Hurricane Areas: All commercial projects, including multi-family residential projects where applicable, in hurricane zones must be designed in accordance with the following:

    High-Wind (Non-Hurricane) Areas: All commercial projects, including multi-family residential projects were applcable, located in non-hurricane zones must be designed in accordance with the following:

    • FORTIFIED Commercial-High Wind & Hail - Bronze, Silver, or Gold Level

    OR

    Option 2: High-Wind (Non-Hurricane) Area design measures:

    If project is located within FEMA Wind Zone II (160 mph /258 kmh), Zone III (200 mph/322 kmh), or Zone IV (250 mph/402 kmh), or FEMA Special Wind Regions, then all structures must incorporate wind design measures per the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7-10).

    Tornado Areas

    Option 1: Tornado-Specific design measures

    Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III or IV with public/community uses and multifamily housing facilities must include safe rooms designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-361, Safe Rooms for Tornadoes and Hurricanes: Guidance for Community and Residential Safe Rooms, Third Edition (2015)

    Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III and IV without community uses must include refuge areas designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-431 Tornado Protection: Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings.

    OR

    Option 2: Tornado-Specific design measures

    FEMA Standards

    If a tornado shelter is installed, it is recommended that it meet the requirements of FEMA 320 “Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business,” FEMA 361 “Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms,” or the International Code Council & National Storm Shelter Association (ICC/NSSA) - ICC-500 “Standard on the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters.”

    Earthquake

    Earthquake-Specific design measures

    Design to meet at least a Silver rating using the Arup REDi Rating System: Resilience-based Earthquake Design Initiative for the Next Generation of Buildings. Provide a signed letter from a Licensed Engineer that describes how the project met or will meet the REDi Silver rating.

    Tsunami

    Tsunami-Specific design measures

    Design and construct according to standards detailed in Designing for Tsunamis: Seven Principles for Planning and Designing for Tsunami Hazards (by NOAA, USGS, FEMA, NSF, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington), March 2001 edition2.

    Wildfire

    Wildfire-Specific design measures

    Demonstrate compliance with ICC's 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

    Drought

    Drought-Specific design measures

    Reduce the project's landscape water requirement by at least fifty percent (50%) per the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Outdoor Water Use Reduction credit and use non-potable or non-municipal water sources as outlined in the WE credit.

    In addition, reduce flush and flow fixture water use per the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Indoor Water Use Reduction (excluding appliance and process water) by at least forty percent (40%).

    Follow the requirements of the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Outdoor Water Use Reduction and LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Indoor Water Use Reduction credits to demonstrate compliance with the stated thresholds of this pilot credit.

    Landslides and unstable soils

    Landslide-Specific design measures

    Demonstrate that any steep-slope (≥ 15% or 6.75⁰) soils and underlying geology on the building site and uphill from the building site have been investigated through a signed report from a geotechnical engineer.

    Either provide a signed letter from a geotechnical engineer showing that landslides pose minimal landslide risk or a letter from professional engineer indicating that mitigation strategies for the project result in minimal landslide risk.

    Extreme Heat

    Extreme Heat-Specific design measures

    The project should document how it meets a minimum of six extreme heat mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria: Building Site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.

    The six selected strategies must fall in at least two of these criteria. Suggested strategies are listed below but the list should not be considered comprehensive. Teams should identify strategies that are specific to their local conditions—for example, hot/dry versus hot/humid conditions dictate very different approaches to heat mitigation.

    Building Site

    • Provide shaded external spaces adjacent to buildings for potential use during extreme heat events. Include access to power and water services.
    • Maximize open-grid pavement systems.
    • Provide high-reflectivity paving materials, such as light concrete or white aggregate.
    • Provide native or adapted planting to reduce micro temperatures and increase shading.
    • Provide evaporative cooling solutions through fountains, misters, water features, etc.
    • Orient buildings and massing to self-shade in summer and extreme heat conditions.
    • Provide outdoor cooling stations that can run on emergency backup power.
    • Demonstrate that the building is less than one-quarter mile from an emergency cooling station.

    Building Enclosure

    • Provide high levels of insulation to minimize heat gains through building envelope (see Thermal Habitability under LEED Pilot Credit 100 for more information).
    • Provide high levels of internal thermal mass and provisions for passive night-time flushing where significant diurnal temperature swings occur (i.e., where night-time cooling of the mass can occur).
    • Design for airtight construction and controlled ventilation and solar heat gain to limit external air flow when exterior hotter conditions occur.
    • Provide lower Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) glass, particularly on east and west facades.
    • Design for natural ventilation using operable windows, specialized vents, or other means.
    • Design enclosure systems with exterior shading devices to minimize solar heat gain during peak summer conditions.
    • Provide high-reflectivity roofing materials meeting Cool Roof Rating Council standards.
    • Provide indoor cooling stations that can run on emergency backup power.

    Building Systems

    • For those climates where active cooling is already required, design for an increased cooling load over time (i.e., adequate space in the mechanical room to install a larger system).
    • Provide whole-building fan for night flushing with the capacity to power that fan with emergency backup power, such as: Provide operable windows and / or non-powered natural ventilation and passive cooling and / or provide adequate power to operate ventilation fans and / or provide active cooling
    • Design for efficient cooling systems that incorporate such features as building-based renewable technologies, groundwater cooling loop, or earth-tube cooling systems.
    • Allow for future flexibility in cooling systems by providing space for future electrical, water, ductwork, radiant cooling etc. to be added as needed.
    • Design systems for ties to renewable energy sources/district energy solutions, such as: Meet Green-E Criteria for renewable energy qualifications. The following sources are included: Solar Electric, Solar thermal, wind, clean bio-mass / bio-digestion and micro-hydro.

    Winter Storms

    Winter Storms-Specific design measures

    The project should document how it meets a minimum of six winter storm mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria: Building Site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.

    The six selected strategies must fall in at least two of these criteria. Suggested strategies are listed below but the list should not be considered comprehensive. Teams should identify strategies that are specific to their local conditions—for example, areas that regularly experience blizzards, heavy snowfall, ice storms, or extreme cold temperatures dictate very different approaches to winter storm mitigation compared to typically mild climates that may experience freezing rain conditions or sudden freezing temperatures that dictate very different approaches to winter storm mitigation.

    Building Site

    • Provide adequate ingress/egress for vehicles, snow removal equipment, and emergency vehicles to anticipate winter storm conditions.
    • Provide a snow-removal plan that addresses the following: compatible road material for any surface parking areas to accommodate snow removal equipment and potential sanding or de-icing strategies. Provide areas for accumulated snow wherever off-site snow removal is not possible. Provide a roof snow removal plan. Provide safe walking surfaces to exterior parking areas. If heated sidewalks or drives are implemented, consider using renewable energy systems as an energy source.
    • Specify native or adapted planting with a capacity for heavy snow loads that may occur earlier or later in the season in full leaf stages and/or species that are more freeze-tolerant in unseasonal cold snaps.

    Building Enclosure

    • Provide high levels of building insulation to minimize heat loss through building envelope. (See Thermal Habitability under LEED Resilience Pilot Credit IPpc100 for more information)
    • Provide high levels of thermal mass where significant diurnal temperature swings occur (i.e. where daytime storage of heat can occur]
    • Provide hardening strategies appropriate to mitigating winter storms for the project region, such as providing a high-performance roof that is rated for higher-than-code wind velocities.
    • Provide hardening of the roof system to prevent potential collapse by designing the snow loads to be 1.2 times the ground snow loads (Pg) shown in ASCE 7 (or the locally adopted ground snow loads in Case Study areas).
    • Provide protection against the potential for ice dam formation on low-sloped roofs by preventing ice from forming around drains. For steep-sloped roofs, designs should include increased attic insulation, sealed ceiling penetrations, and applying a waterproof membrane on roof deck at roof edge (ice and water barrier). This moisture barrier should extend from the roof edge to at least 2 ft. (61 cm) towards the interior of the building, beyond the exterior wall enclosing conditioned space. No localized heat source should be installed in non-conditioned attic space such that it creates localized heating of the roof surface; un-insulated recessed lights shall not be installed where they could cause localized heating of the roof surface. Provide all attic or roof access doors between conditioned and non-conditioned space with proper insulation, sealant and weather-stripping or gaskets and treat them as exterior doors.
    • Provide protection against frozen pipes so that building design prohibits water pipe runs in exterior walls and unheated spaces. Insulate/seal all wall, door, and wall penetrations. Monitor interior building temperature to prevent freezing of interior piping such as domestic water and fire protection sprinkler systems.
    • Prepare a Snow Event Response and Removal Plan based upon the FEMA Snow Load Safety Guide. Amongst project-specific strategies developed, the Plan should include defining at what point snow removal should be initiated as well as how access will be provided to roof for snow removal.

    Building Systems

    • Prepare a plan for how backup power would be provided for disruptions in electrical power, which is a common occurrence during winter storms. This does not require implementation of a backup power system, just a written plan. For guidance on developing a plan, refer to Option 2: Provide Backup Power as detailed in LEED pilot credit IPpc100 Passive Survivability and Back-up Power During Disruptions.
    • Prepare a Disaster Preparedness Plan, as described in LEED IPpc#98 in Option 2: Emergency Preparedness Planning. This path provides a planning roadmap to anticipate disruptions of any type and prepares a building owner for a proactive response and recovery plan, including sheltering in place and continuous operations strategies.

    Documentation

    General

    Register for the pilot credit

    Participate in the LEEDuser pilot credit forum http://www.leeduser.com/pilot
    Complete the feedback survey:

  • Complete the feedback survey:
  • Pilot Credit Survey

    Flooding

    Documenting Flooding-Specific design measures

    Submit the following documentation to demonstrate compliance with above standards.

    • Site plan drawing showing locations and product documentation of backflow preventers used on project.
    • Section and plan drawings showing major equipment locations.
    • Section and plan drawings showing lowest occupied floor’s lowest structural horizontal member demonstrating that it is a minimum of five (5) feet (1.5 meters) above the FEMA-defined base flood elevation (BFE+5), as defined for FEMA NFIP Zone V and recommended for Coast Zone A, OR as an alternative, in commercial projects only, licensed engineer-stamped plans verifying that dry flood-proofing practices have been followed for any spaces located below BFE+5.

    Hurricane and High-Wind Areas

    Documenting Option 1: Hurricane and High-Wind design measures

    Hurricane Areas: For non-residential projects in hurricane zones provide one of the following:

    Documenting Option 2: High-Wind (Non-Hurricane) Area design measures:
    • If project is located within FEMA Wind Zone II (160 mph/257 kmh), Zone III (200 mph/322kmh), or Zone IV (250 mph/402 kmh), or Special Wind Regions, then all structures must incorporate wind design measures per the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7-10).
    • Signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet wind standards.

    Tornado Areas

    Documenting Tornado-Specific design measures

    Submit the following documentation to demonstrate compliance with above standards.

    • Plan drawing showing location and details about the construction of safe room for public/community project or safe refuge area for non-public project (if applicable).

    Earthquake

    Documenting Earthquake-Specific design measures

    Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Engineer that describes how the project met or will meet REDi Seismic Design standards.

    Tsunami

    Documenting Tsunami-Specific design measures

    Provide a signed Executive Summary of a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet NOAA principles for Tsunami design.
    Provide a narrative, plan and section drawings that describe vertical evacuation design including warning system and signage guiding evacuees.

    Wildfire

    Documenting Wildfire-Specific design measures

    Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

    Drought

    Documenting Drought-Specific design measures

    Follow the requirements of the LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Outdoor Water Use Reduction and LEED Water Efficiency (WE) Indoor Water Use Reduction credits to demonstrate compliance with the stated thresholds of this pilot credit.

    Landslides and unstable soils

    Documenting Landslide-Specific design measures
    • Provide a signed report from a geotechnical engineer showing that any steep-slope (≥ 15% or 6.75⁰) soils and underlying geology on the building site and uphill from the building site have been investigated.
    • Provide a contour map of site highlighting any areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75⁰) and showing landslide-prone soils.
    • Provide a contour map showing the larger area that extends above the building site showing areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75⁰) and landslide-prone soils
    • Provide a signed letter from a geotechnical engineer showing that landslides pose minimal risk.
    • OR

    • Provide a signed letter from a licensed engineer indicating that mitigations strategies for the project result in minimal landslide risk.
    • Extreme Heat

      Documenting Extreme Heat-Specific design measures
      • Demonstrate credit compliance by submitting documentation for how the project meets a minimum of six extreme heat mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria detailed in the Implementation section of this credit: Building Site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.
      • Provide drawings and/or site plans, as applicable, showing how mitigation strategies were incorporated into the design. Provide a brief narrative summarizing the design strategies implemented signed by a Licensed Design Professional.

      Winter Storms

      Documenting Winter Storms-Specific design measures

      Demonstrate credit compliance by submitting documentation for how the project meets a minimum of six winter storm mitigation strategies across the following three design criteria detailed in the Implementation section of this credit: Building site, Building Enclosure, and Building Systems.

      • Demonstrate how the building design has mitigated the impacts of winter storms through design-specific measures. Provide drawings and/or site plans, as applicable, showing how mitigation strategies were incorporated into the design. Provide a brief narrative signed by a Licensed Design Professional identifying the design strategies implemented.
      • To demonstrate that an adequate emergency power plan has been prepared for the critical loads of the building being served, consider using the guidelines found in LEED IPpc100 Option 2: Provide Backup Power. Plans for emergency power requirements may be met with, but not limited to, fuel-fired backup generators, a solar-electric system with battery storage, or a micro-grid.
      • To demonstrate compliance for the written Disaster Preparedness Plan strategy, EITHER submit the following two completed Red Cross forms signed by Owner:
      • To confirm a higher-than code roof structural design for snow loads - provide roof system structural design or letter from project’s licensed structural engineer confirming the design of snow loads to be 1.2 times the ground snow loads (Pg) shown in ASCE 7 (or the locally adopted ground snow loads in Case Study areas).
      • To confirm the following design elements are incorporated to protect against ice dam formation, provide a letter from a licensed architect confirming protection against the potential for ice dam formation. For low-sloped roofs, prevent ice from forming around drains. For steep-sloped roofs, designs should include increased attic insulation, sealing ceiling penetrations, and applying a waterproof membrane on roof deck at roof edge (ice and water barrier). No localized heat source should be installed in non-conditioned attic space such that it creates localized heating of the roof surface; un-insulated recessed lights shall not be installed where they could cause localized heating of the roof surface. Provide all attic or roof access doors between conditioned and non-conditioned space with proper insulation, sealant and weather-stripping or gaskets and they should be treated as exterior doors.
      • To confirm a snow removal plan is to be included for the building, ensure that a documented roof snow removal plan is addressed.
      • To confirm the following design elements are incorporated to protect against the potential for freezing pipes, provide a letter from a licensed architect confirming the following design measures are included. Provide protection against frozen pipes so that building design prohibits water pipe runs in exterior walls and unheated spaces. Insulate/seal all wall, door, and wall penetrations. Monitor interior building temperature to prevent freezing of interior piping such as domestic water and fire protection sprinkler systems.
      • To confirm that a Snow Event Response and Removal Plan has been developed based upon the FEMA Snow Load Safety Guide, provide a copy of the plan. Amongst project-specific strategies developed, the Plan should include defining at what point snow removal should be initiated as well as how access will be provided to roof for snow removal (i.e. stairs or a permanently affixed ladder, etc.).
    APPENDIX: ISSUES TO CONSIDER
    Flooding

    Flooding can result from storm surge associated with tropical storms, from exceptional tides, from intense rainfall events that result in rivers or streams jumping their banks, and from rapid ice-melt in late winter or spring. In coastal areas, rising sea level will greatly exacerbate flooding, increasing both its frequency and severity. No matter what the cause of flooding, the solutions for achieving greater resilience are much the same.

    Referenced Standards

    Tornado

    In the case of tornadoes, in which winds can exceed 200 miles per hour (322 kmh) - and even 300 mph (483 kmh) in the largest tornadoes - protecting the building usually isn't practical, and solutions involve sheltering occupants.
    Referenced Standards

    High Winds

    High winds can result from tropical storms and hurricanes, from localized thunderstorms, from more extensive regional storm systems (including derechos), from region-specific conditions (such as the Chinook winds that are common on the eastern slope of the northern Rockies in late-winter and spring), and in the most extreme case, tornadoes. With climate change, weather conditions are predicted to become more extreme, and this will mean increased wind events in many areas.
    Designing to achieve resilience to high winds is a well-established structural engineering discipline.

    Referenced Standards
    • ASCE/SEI 7-10
    • FEMA 543, Design Guide for Improving Critical Facility Safety from Flooding and High Winds: Providing Protection to People and Buildings (2007)
    • FORTIFIED Commercial Standards
    • Earthquake

      Earthquakes are geologic events associated with movement of the Earth's tectonic plates. As such, earthquake activity is generally limited to very specific regions where fault lines exist between these plates. In some cases, seismic activity is caused or exacerbated by human activities, such as fracking—resulting in earthquakes in places that have not previously experienced them. The most seismically active regions are well-known, and building codes in these locations generally call for specific measures to allow occupants to escape buildings safely, however, some codes allow renovation and continued use of existing buildings that do not meet current seismic code. Resilience to earthquake damage generally goes further than simply providing for the safe egress from buildings, and seeks to minimize damage to buildings so that they can return quickly to functionality.

      Referenced Standards

      Arup REDi Rating System: Resilience- based Earthquake Design Initiative for the Next Generation of Buildings

      Tsunami

      Tsunamis are hazards that propagate from specialized seismic events, and that can result in sudden and extreme flooding and erosion of coastal areas. Unlike other forms of flooding, however, they are not predictable over a specific time horizon; there may be minutes' to a few hours' warning of the arrival of tsunamis.

      Referenced Standards
      Wildfire

      Wildfire has been a natural part of ecosystems for millions of years, particularly in regions in which there is a significant dry season. This becomes a problem when development extends into these traditionally fire-managed ecosystems, such as are found in Southern California, Colorado, and much of the West. Drought, which climate models predict will become more frequent and of longer duration in some areas, increases wildfire risk, as does the die-off of trees that can occur when warming winters fail to keep wood-boring beetles in check, as has occurred in the Northern Rockies in recent decades.

      Referenced Standards

      Additional references
      University of California Publication 8228
      NFPA FWC20508
      FEMA P-754

      Drought

      Cycles of drought have been common for millions of years, as geologic evidence shows. In the Western United States, climate change models predict that drought will increase in frequency and severity. And drought may even become a problem in areas where drought has been less common, such as in the Southeastern U.S. The characteristics of reservoirs also affect the impact that droughts cause; in the East, reservoirs tend to be shallower, with less capacity to deal with periodic fluctuations in precipitation. The depletion of aquifers in some regions will also decrease our capacity to deal with droughts.

      Strategies for dealing with drought include a wide range of water conservation measures, both indoors and outdoors. Water catchment and storage can also play into a suite of solutions.

      Landslides and unstable soils

      Landslides are a significant hazard in areas with certain soil/geologic conditions and in which steep slopes are found either on the building site or uphill of that building site. Landslide risks are exacerbated by heavy rainfall, seismic events, and the loss of vegetation from wildfires, commercial lumber harvesting operations, or from large-scale die-offs of trees due to the effects of climate change.

      Extreme Heat

      According to the U.S. EPA “Extreme heat event (EHE) conditions are defined by summertime weather that is substantially hotter and/or more humid than average for a location at that time of year. Because how hot it feels depends on the interaction of multiple meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, humidity, cloud cover), EHE criteria typically shift by location and time of year.”
      Extreme heat events can have significant adverse health effects by stressing the body’s ability to maintain an ideal internal temperature, leading to increased mortality particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and low income. Concerns are greatest when the number of hot days lengthen to weeks or more. Their impacts are particularly significant in urban settings due to the urban heat island effect.

      Winter Storms

      Winter storms and cold waves were the second largest cause of insured U.S. catastrophe losses for the period of 2006–2015 according to Munich Re NatCatSERVICE and Property Claim Services (PCS). While frozen pipes are the leading cause of property damage due to winter weather, record snowfalls in recent years have resulted in roof collapses on businesses from Arizona to New England. This can lead to significant damage to both the building and the contents and prolong the recovery period after the snow melts. Like frozen pipes, ice dams can result in severe water damage that will put businesses at risk. Roof collapse and ice dams are significant building dangers caused by snow on the roof; an accumulation of snow on the roof beyond the load capacity of the roof leads to roof collapse, and ice dams on sloped roofs are caused by snow on the roof in combination with temperature. As with other types of severe storms, severe winter weather can also cause a disruption in electrical power.

      According to FEMA: “A winter storm occurs when there is significant precipitation and the temperature is low enough that precipitation forms as sleet or snow, or when rain turns to ice. A winter storm can range from freezing rain and ice, to moderate snowfall over a few hours, to a blizzard that lasts for several days. Many winter storms are accompanied by dangerously low temperatures. Winter storms (and colder than normal temperatures) can happen in every region of the country and can occur from early autumn to late spring depending on the region.”

      One of the most common impacts of winter storms is loss of power that can last for days or weeks. Project teams should assess whether winter storms could impact essential operations or access to the site and develop mitigation strategies that align with programmatic priorities identified by the owner and design team.

      Additional General Issues to Consider

      Direct Human Actions

      Human-induced hazards are events caused by—often intentional—human actions. The impact of these events ranges from disruption of municipal area operations (such as during a strike), to undue use of force by authorities (such in response to peaceful protests), to serious harm at a limited scale (such as during a shooting), to widespread death and destruction at a neighborhood scale (such as during detonation of an improvised explosive device). Civil unrest, government intrusion, strikes, active shootings, and improvised explosive devices are some of the human-induced hazards that a facility may face. Additionally as our energy infrastructure becomes more complex and increasingly controlled by Internet-based, "smart" technology, there are more points of accidental failure and also risk of hacking into controls.

      While specific requirements for resilience measures related to direct human actions and equipment malfunctions for other reasons are not included in this credit, design teams are encouraged to address passive survivability measures covered in LEED Resilience Pilot Credit IPpc100.

      Consider conducting a Comprehensive Safety Report which outlines risks associated with some of the most disruptive Human Induced Hazards.

      IBHS Background [for Resources]
      The Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) is an independent, nonprofit, scientific research and communications organization supported by the property insurance industry.

      FORTIFIED Commercial™: Voluntary, superior construction standard and designation program designed by IBHS for new/existing construction that addresses specific natural hazard risks and recommendations for reducing damage

      • FORTIFIED Commercial™–Hurricane for hurricane-prone areas
      • FORTIFIED Commercial™–High Wind & Hail for non-hurricane-prone areas
      • 3 designation levels—Bronze, Silver and Gold—for different budgets and resilience goals
      • Visit DisasterSafety.org/fortified/commercial
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