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Performance-based indoor air quality design and assessment

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Pilot-Credits EQpc124: Performance-based indoor air quality design and assessment 1-7 points

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© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To contribute to the comfort and well-being of building occupants by minimizing indoor air quality problems associated with construction and renovation and establishing minimum standards for indoor air quality (IAQ). To provide awareness of baseline indoor air contaminant levels to support indoor air quality management.

Requirements

Tier 1: Contaminant-based IAQ design (1 point)
Comply with the following two requirements:
  1. Design the building so that during occupancy, the indoor air does not exceed the concentrations for the specified contaminants in Tables 1 and 2, plus any other contaminants of interest. Perform an engineering analysis (such as a mass balance calculation per Appendix D of ASHRAE 62.1-2010) to confirm and optimize the design.

    Design assumptions for contaminant removal efficiency must be based on a standard third-party test method for gas-phase air cleaning devices such as ASHRAE Standard 145.2-2011, Laboratory Test Method for Assessing the Performance of Gas-Phase Air-Cleaning Systems: Air Cleaning Devices and ASHRAE Standard 55.2-2012 Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size.

    Electronic air cleaning devices must also be third-party tested to produce no harmful byproducts, including Ozone, formaldehyde, ultrafine particles, and other VOCs. An active monitoring device must be installed at all times to continuously monitor contaminant levels and appropriate mitigation measures must be performed for above average levels.

  2. Comply with ASHRAE 62.1-2010 sections 4, 5, 6.5, 7, and 8.
AND/OR Tier 2: Baseline IAQ evaluation (1-3 points)
Test the indoor and outdoor air for the contaminants specified in Path a or Path b and perform an occupant satisfaction evaluation with focus on perceived indoor air quality. Conduct the testing and surveying thirty to sixty days after the issuance of certificate of occupancy. The occupant satisfaction responses must be collected from a representative sample of building occupants making up at least 30% of the total occupants. The test plan and proposed contaminant list must be pre-approved by USGBC and GBCI before conducting the test. Discuss test results with building owner, highlighting any areas of improvement or concern as well as areas of strength. Tier 2 points are awarded for performing the testing and evaluation. See Tier 3 for points awarded for meeting specific performance levels.
Path a. LEED-specific contaminant list (2 points)
See Tables 1 and 2
AND/OR Path b. Project-specific contaminant list (1 point)
Develop a contaminant list relevant to the project, including the test method and an associated cognizant authority health-based limit. At a minimum, the list should have the following four contaminants: formaldehyde, Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), CO2, and PM2.5.
AND/OR Tier 3: Demonstrate IAQ Performance (3 points)
Demonstrate from the Tier 2. Baseline IAQ evaluation, measured concentrations in the indoor air are at or below the concentration limits and occupant acceptability is at or above 80%. Table 1. Mandatory indoor VOC contaminant testing
Contaminant VOC Compound (CAS#) Concentration Limit (µg/m3) Concentration Limit reference* Allowed Test Methods**
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 140 Cal EPA OEHHA CRELS ISO 16000-3, 6, EPA IP-1, EPA TO-17, ISO 16017-1, 2; ASTM D6345-10
Benzene 71-43-2 3
Styrene 100-42-5 900
Toluene 108-88-3 300
Naphthalene 91-20-3 9
Dichlorobenzene (1,4-) 106-46-7 800
Xylenes-total 108-38-3, 95-47-6, and 106-42-3 700
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 20 (16 ppb) NIOSH ISO 16000-3, 4; EPA TO-11, EPA comp. IP-6 ASTM D5197
Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)*** 500 LEED v4 ISO 16000-6
*Concentration limits derived from Cal EPA OEHHA CRELs (as of June 2016), NIOSH (as of April 2016), and LEED v4. See Behind the Intent in the reference guide content for more information. **For Table 1, implement testing using referenced laboratory testing methods only. *** VOC as defined in ISO 16000-6
Table 2. Mandatory inorganic contaminant testing
Contaminant non- VOC inorganics Concentration Limit Concentration Limit reference* Allowed Test Methods Measure indoors and outdoors
Ozone 137 ug/m3 (0.07 ppm) EPA NAAQS ASTM D5149-02, ISO 13964, and/or monitoring devices** Yes
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 10 mg/m3 and no greater than 2 mg/m3 above outdoors (<9 ppm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoors) EPA NAAQS ISO 4224, EPA IP-3, and/or monitoring devices** Yes
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) CO2 concentration equivalent to ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure level using the methods in ASHRAE 62.1–2010, Appendix C. ASHRAE 62.1-2010 ISO 4224, EPA IP-3 Yes
PM 2.5 35 ug/m3 or 12 ug/m3*** EPA NAAQS EPA IP-10, and/or monitoring devices** Yes
*Concentration limits derived from EPA NAAQS as of March 2017. See Behind the Intent in the reference guide content for more information. The derivation of CO2 threshold: 700 ppm above outdoor levels is based upon the assumptions of activity level and steady state concentrations in a space type in ASHRAE 62.1. **Scientific and building grade monitoring devices (as defined in the Reference Guide) such as sensors or direct read instruments are also an allowed test method for the contaminants in Table 2. The devices must be calibrated in accordance with the device manufacturer’s recommendations and capable of measuring below the concentration limit and in the same measurement range as the laboratory method. Individuals performing the indoor air testing must be trained by the manufacturer on calibration methods, inspection, use, chain-of-custody, troubleshooting, and data retrieval for each monitoring device used. ***Projects in areas with high ambient levels of PM2.5 (known EPA nonattainment areas for PM2.5, or local equivalent) must meet the 35 ug/m3 limit, all other projects should meet the 12 ug/m3 limit.
Point allocation
This pilot credit is an alternative approach to achieving several indoor air quality-related credits in the Indoor Environmental Quality credit category. Projects may earn points for this pilot credit as follows:
Tier Requirement Points awarded
Tier 1: Contaminant- based design Contaminant-based design 1 point under Enhanced indoor air quality strategies
Tier 2: Baseline IAQ evaluation Perform LEED-specific mandatory testing (contaminant limits in Table 1 and Table 2) + occupant evaluation 1 point under Indoor air assessment and 1 point under Innovation
Perform project-specific contaminant testing + occupant evaluation 1 point under Enhanced indoor air quality strategies
Tier 3. Demonstrate IAQ performance Achieve pass criteria for contaminants in Tier 2, + 80% occupant acceptability 1 point under Indoor air assessment and 1 point under Construction indoor air quality management plan and 1 point under Low-emitting materials
Projects that achieve Tier 1, Tier 2. Path a, AND Tier 3, achieve the minimum indoor air quality performance prerequisite. Additional requirements outlined in the prerequisite, such as the 62.1-2016 ventilation rate procedure for mechanically ventilated spaces, are not required. Achieve Prerequisite Minimum indoor air quality performance

Documentation Requirements

General
Register for the pilot credit Credits 116-125
Credit Specific
Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3
Description of engineering analysis, including any associated calculations and design assumptions. x
Supporting documentation for electronic air cleaning devices, confirming third-party testing and active monitoring device to be installed. x
Confirmation that project complies with ASHRAE 62.1-2010 sections 4, 5, 6.5, 7, and 8. x
Training and experience documentation for individuals involved in the IAQ evaluation and testing. x
Copy of test plan and proposed contaminant list with pre-approval from USGBC/GBCI x
IAQ evaluation report x x
Results of occupant satisfaction survey x x
Survey questions:
  • Would the team apply this method to another building in the future? Why/why not?
  • Why did you pursue this pilot credit, which aspects of the pilot did you end up pursuing?
  • How did the cost of this method compare to the cost of the Ventilation Rate Procedure?
Changes
  • 4/26/2018 - original publication
See all forum discussions about this credit »

What does it cost?

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Our tab contains overall cost guidance, notes on what “soft costs” to expect, and a strategy-by-strategy breakdown of what to consider and what it might cost, in percentage premiums, actual costs, or both.

This information is also available in a full PDF download in The Cost of LEED v4 report.

Learn more about The Cost of LEED v4 »

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USGBC logo

© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To contribute to the comfort and well-being of building occupants by minimizing indoor air quality problems associated with construction and renovation and establishing minimum standards for indoor air quality (IAQ). To provide awareness of baseline indoor air contaminant levels to support indoor air quality management.

Requirements

Tier 1: Contaminant-based IAQ design (1 point)
Comply with the following two requirements:
  1. Design the building so that during occupancy, the indoor air does not exceed the concentrations for the specified contaminants in Tables 1 and 2, plus any other contaminants of interest. Perform an engineering analysis (such as a mass balance calculation per Appendix D of ASHRAE 62.1-2010) to confirm and optimize the design.

    Design assumptions for contaminant removal efficiency must be based on a standard third-party test method for gas-phase air cleaning devices such as ASHRAE Standard 145.2-2011, Laboratory Test Method for Assessing the Performance of Gas-Phase Air-Cleaning Systems: Air Cleaning Devices and ASHRAE Standard 55.2-2012 Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size.

    Electronic air cleaning devices must also be third-party tested to produce no harmful byproducts, including Ozone, formaldehyde, ultrafine particles, and other VOCs. An active monitoring device must be installed at all times to continuously monitor contaminant levels and appropriate mitigation measures must be performed for above average levels.

  2. Comply with ASHRAE 62.1-2010 sections 4, 5, 6.5, 7, and 8.
AND/OR Tier 2: Baseline IAQ evaluation (1-3 points)
Test the indoor and outdoor air for the contaminants specified in Path a or Path b and perform an occupant satisfaction evaluation with focus on perceived indoor air quality. Conduct the testing and surveying thirty to sixty days after the issuance of certificate of occupancy. The occupant satisfaction responses must be collected from a representative sample of building occupants making up at least 30% of the total occupants. The test plan and proposed contaminant list must be pre-approved by USGBC and GBCI before conducting the test. Discuss test results with building owner, highlighting any areas of improvement or concern as well as areas of strength. Tier 2 points are awarded for performing the testing and evaluation. See Tier 3 for points awarded for meeting specific performance levels.
Path a. LEED-specific contaminant list (2 points)
See Tables 1 and 2
AND/OR Path b. Project-specific contaminant list (1 point)
Develop a contaminant list relevant to the project, including the test method and an associated cognizant authority health-based limit. At a minimum, the list should have the following four contaminants: formaldehyde, Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), CO2, and PM2.5.
AND/OR Tier 3: Demonstrate IAQ Performance (3 points)
Demonstrate from the Tier 2. Baseline IAQ evaluation, measured concentrations in the indoor air are at or below the concentration limits and occupant acceptability is at or above 80%. Table 1. Mandatory indoor VOC contaminant testing
Contaminant VOC Compound (CAS#) Concentration Limit (µg/m3) Concentration Limit reference* Allowed Test Methods**
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 140 Cal EPA OEHHA CRELS ISO 16000-3, 6, EPA IP-1, EPA TO-17, ISO 16017-1, 2; ASTM D6345-10
Benzene 71-43-2 3
Styrene 100-42-5 900
Toluene 108-88-3 300
Naphthalene 91-20-3 9
Dichlorobenzene (1,4-) 106-46-7 800
Xylenes-total 108-38-3, 95-47-6, and 106-42-3 700
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 20 (16 ppb) NIOSH ISO 16000-3, 4; EPA TO-11, EPA comp. IP-6 ASTM D5197
Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)*** 500 LEED v4 ISO 16000-6
*Concentration limits derived from Cal EPA OEHHA CRELs (as of June 2016), NIOSH (as of April 2016), and LEED v4. See Behind the Intent in the reference guide content for more information. **For Table 1, implement testing using referenced laboratory testing methods only. *** VOC as defined in ISO 16000-6
Table 2. Mandatory inorganic contaminant testing
Contaminant non- VOC inorganics Concentration Limit Concentration Limit reference* Allowed Test Methods Measure indoors and outdoors
Ozone 137 ug/m3 (0.07 ppm) EPA NAAQS ASTM D5149-02, ISO 13964, and/or monitoring devices** Yes
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 10 mg/m3 and no greater than 2 mg/m3 above outdoors (<9 ppm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoors) EPA NAAQS ISO 4224, EPA IP-3, and/or monitoring devices** Yes
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) CO2 concentration equivalent to ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure level using the methods in ASHRAE 62.1–2010, Appendix C. ASHRAE 62.1-2010 ISO 4224, EPA IP-3 Yes
PM 2.5 35 ug/m3 or 12 ug/m3*** EPA NAAQS EPA IP-10, and/or monitoring devices** Yes
*Concentration limits derived from EPA NAAQS as of March 2017. See Behind the Intent in the reference guide content for more information. The derivation of CO2 threshold: 700 ppm above outdoor levels is based upon the assumptions of activity level and steady state concentrations in a space type in ASHRAE 62.1. **Scientific and building grade monitoring devices (as defined in the Reference Guide) such as sensors or direct read instruments are also an allowed test method for the contaminants in Table 2. The devices must be calibrated in accordance with the device manufacturer’s recommendations and capable of measuring below the concentration limit and in the same measurement range as the laboratory method. Individuals performing the indoor air testing must be trained by the manufacturer on calibration methods, inspection, use, chain-of-custody, troubleshooting, and data retrieval for each monitoring device used. ***Projects in areas with high ambient levels of PM2.5 (known EPA nonattainment areas for PM2.5, or local equivalent) must meet the 35 ug/m3 limit, all other projects should meet the 12 ug/m3 limit.
Point allocation
This pilot credit is an alternative approach to achieving several indoor air quality-related credits in the Indoor Environmental Quality credit category. Projects may earn points for this pilot credit as follows:
Tier Requirement Points awarded
Tier 1: Contaminant- based design Contaminant-based design 1 point under Enhanced indoor air quality strategies
Tier 2: Baseline IAQ evaluation Perform LEED-specific mandatory testing (contaminant limits in Table 1 and Table 2) + occupant evaluation 1 point under Indoor air assessment and 1 point under Innovation
Perform project-specific contaminant testing + occupant evaluation 1 point under Enhanced indoor air quality strategies
Tier 3. Demonstrate IAQ performance Achieve pass criteria for contaminants in Tier 2, + 80% occupant acceptability 1 point under Indoor air assessment and 1 point under Construction indoor air quality management plan and 1 point under Low-emitting materials
Projects that achieve Tier 1, Tier 2. Path a, AND Tier 3, achieve the minimum indoor air quality performance prerequisite. Additional requirements outlined in the prerequisite, such as the 62.1-2016 ventilation rate procedure for mechanically ventilated spaces, are not required. Achieve Prerequisite Minimum indoor air quality performance

Documentation Requirements

General
Register for the pilot credit Credits 116-125
Credit Specific
Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3
Description of engineering analysis, including any associated calculations and design assumptions. x
Supporting documentation for electronic air cleaning devices, confirming third-party testing and active monitoring device to be installed. x
Confirmation that project complies with ASHRAE 62.1-2010 sections 4, 5, 6.5, 7, and 8. x
Training and experience documentation for individuals involved in the IAQ evaluation and testing. x
Copy of test plan and proposed contaminant list with pre-approval from USGBC/GBCI x
IAQ evaluation report x x
Results of occupant satisfaction survey x x
Survey questions:
  • Would the team apply this method to another building in the future? Why/why not?
  • Why did you pursue this pilot credit, which aspects of the pilot did you end up pursuing?
  • How did the cost of this method compare to the cost of the Ventilation Rate Procedure?
Changes
  • 4/26/2018 - original publication
See all LEEDuser forum discussions about this credit » Subscribe to new discussions about Pilot-Credits EQpc124