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LEED v4
Data Centers – NC
Energy and Atmosphere
Minimum energy performance

LEED CREDIT

Data-Centers-NC-v4 EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance Required

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SPECIAL REPORT

LEEDuser expert

Marcus Sheffer

7group / Energy Opportunities
LEED Fellow

SPECIAL REPORT

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Credit language

USGBC logo

© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To reduce the environmental and economic harms of excessive energy use by achieving a minimum level of energy efficiency for the building and its systems.

Requirements

Whole-building energy simulation

Demonstrate a 5% improvement in the proposed performance rating over the baseline performance rating. To determine total energy cost savings, create two models, one for building energy cost and the other for IT equipment energy cost. Calculate the baseline building performance according to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2010, Appendix G, with errata (or a USGBC-approved equivalent standard for projects outside the U.S.), using a simulation model for the whole building and data center modeling guidelines.

Determine the power utilization effectiveness (PUE) value of the proposed design.

For this prerequisite, a minimum of 2% of the 5% energy savings must come from building power and cooling infrastructure.

Projects must meet the minimum percentage savings before taking credit for renewable energy systems.

The proposed design must meet the following criteria:

For data centers, regulated energy includes cooling units for computer and data processing rooms, critical power conditioning equipment, critical distribution equipment, heat rejection plants, and mechanical and electrical support rooms.

Include in process loads both the unregulated load and the IT equipment load. The IT load comprises critical systems and electrical power transformation, which may include servers, storage and networking power use, and operations affecting monthly server CPU utilization percentages.

Develop two sets of IT load models using two scenarios, one at the maximum estimated IT load rating and the second at the startup IT rating expected at the time of commissioning.

Document the energy modeling input assumptions for unregulated loads. Unregulated loads should be modeled accurately to reflect the actual expected energy consumption of the building.

If unregulated loads are not identical for both the baseline and the proposed building performance rating, follow the exceptional calculation method (ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2010, G2.5) to document measures that reduce unregulated loads.

Alternative Compliance Paths (ACPs)

Canada ACP - NECB

Projects in Canada may instead demonstrate a percentage improvement in the proposed building performance rating compared with the baseline according to the National Energy Code for Buildings (NECB) 2011. The same percentage cost improvement in energy performance is required to meet the Prerequisite, and the same points for cost percentage improvement in energy performance are applicable for the Credit.

The following conditions (where applicable) must be met. Note that unless otherwise noted, CanQUEST (the Canadian energy modelling software based on eQUEST that performs NECB 2011 compliance runs) does not implement many of these conditions correctly and would require corresponding modifications to the Reference case.

  1. Comply with mandatory requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  2. ASHRAE 90.1-2010 mandatory requirements must be met, in addition to the performance path limitations referenced in the NECB 2011 Sections 3.4.1.2, 5.4.1.2 and 6.4.1.2. In cases where ASHRAE and the NECBC reference requirements concerning the same item, the more stringent requirement shall be adhered to.

    The following exceptions apply:

  • ASHRAE 90.1-2010 mandatory items 6.4.3.9, 9.4.1.2b, 9.4.1.4, 9.4.1.5, 9.4.3

  • Apply fenestration area convention similar to ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  • Maintain the same FWR (as defined by NECB, including doors) for the Reference as exists in the Proposed Design, up to the prescribed maximum. If the Proposed Design’s FWR exceeds the prescribed FWR, scale down the fenestrations in the Reference case accordingly.

  • Apply skylight area convention similar to ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  • Maintain the same SRR for the Reference as exists in the Proposed Design, up to the prescribed 5% maximum. If the Proposed Design’s SRR exceeds 5%, scale down the skylights in the Reference case accordingly.

  • Model proposed and reference outside air similar to ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  • Proposed and reference (baseline) outside air rates shall be modeled as per ASHRAE 90.1 – 2010 (G3.1.2.6).

  • Apply ASHRAE kitchen exhaust demand ventilation requirements
  • Provide for the same demand ventilation requirements as described in ASHRAE Appendix G3.1.1.d.

  • Apply ASHRAE’s chiller heat recovery requirements
  • Provide for the same chiller heat recovery requirements as applies to ASHRAE.

  • Apply supply air temperature reset controlled based on warmest zone
  • Reset the minimum supply air temperature to satisfy the cooling requirements of the warmest zone, as stipulated in NECB Section 5.2.8.8. Note that this control setting is already corrected in CanQUEST for the Reference case.

  • Account for uninsulated structural penetrations if they exceed 2% of net wall area
  • The 2% allowance may be applied, but based on the net opaque wall area, not the entire building envelope area.

  • Follow ASHRAE/LEED rules for renovations to existing buildings
  • Model existing components consistent with ASHRAE and LEED provisions.

  • Account for all anticipated energy use in building
  • Fully account for all energy end-uses in the energy performance modelling.

  • DES Systems are to be modeled according to Option 1, Path 1 or Option 1, Path 2 as indicated in the LEED v4 Reference Guide
  • The following exceptions apply:

    • Option 1, Path 1 - Do not apply ASHRAE 90.1-2010 requirements for purchased heating and cooling. Under this ACP, purchased heating and cooling (as applicable) are modeled as cost-neutral in the baseline and proposed case. Local rates for purchased heating (fossil fuel based) and cooling are used to establish the purchased heating and cooling costs. The energy model's scope accounts for only downstream equipment, plus purchased heating and cooling. NECB clause 8.4.3.6 does not apply for LEED projects.
    • Model baseline systems in accordance with NECB requirements, with DX coils replaced with chilled water coils if purchased cooling is present and fossil-fired furnaces replaced with hot water coils if purchased heating is present.
    • Option 1, Path 2: Do not apply ASHRAE 90.1-2010 requirements for baseline systems. Model baseline systems in accordance with NECB requirements for onsite generated equipment (i.e. assume building is not connected to a DES and the proposed building is modeled with a virtual plant according to LEED v4 Reference Guide requirements).
    See all forum discussions about this credit »

    What does it cost?

    Cost estimates for this credit

    On each BD+C v4 credit, LEEDuser offers the wisdom of a team of architects, engineers, cost estimators, and LEED experts with hundreds of LEED projects between then. They analyzed the sustainable design strategies associated with each LEED credit, but also to assign actual costs to those strategies.

    Our tab contains overall cost guidance, notes on what “soft costs” to expect, and a strategy-by-strategy breakdown of what to consider and what it might cost, in percentage premiums, actual costs, or both.

    This information is also available in a full PDF download in The Cost of LEED v4 report.

    Learn more about The Cost of LEED v4 »

    Frequently asked questions

    Do the required savings for this prerequisite (and credit) need to come only from building energy, or also process loads?

    The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

    (If you're already a premium member, log in here.)

    Our project doesn't have enough energy savings to earn the prerequisite. Can we get there by incorporating onsite renewables?

    The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

    (If you're already a premium member, log in here.)

    Our proposed design has insulation R-values that are below those prescribed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. Can we still meet the prerequisite?

    The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

    (If you're already a premium member, log in here.)

    See all forum discussions about this credit »

    Documentation toolkit

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    LEEDuser expert

    Marcus Sheffer

    7group / Energy Opportunities
    LEED Fellow

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    USGBC logo

    © Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Intent

    To reduce the environmental and economic harms of excessive energy use by achieving a minimum level of energy efficiency for the building and its systems.

    Requirements

    Whole-building energy simulation

    Demonstrate a 5% improvement in the proposed performance rating over the baseline performance rating. To determine total energy cost savings, create two models, one for building energy cost and the other for IT equipment energy cost. Calculate the baseline building performance according to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2010, Appendix G, with errata (or a USGBC-approved equivalent standard for projects outside the U.S.), using a simulation model for the whole building and data center modeling guidelines.

    Determine the power utilization effectiveness (PUE) value of the proposed design.

    For this prerequisite, a minimum of 2% of the 5% energy savings must come from building power and cooling infrastructure.

    Projects must meet the minimum percentage savings before taking credit for renewable energy systems.

    The proposed design must meet the following criteria:

    For data centers, regulated energy includes cooling units for computer and data processing rooms, critical power conditioning equipment, critical distribution equipment, heat rejection plants, and mechanical and electrical support rooms.

    Include in process loads both the unregulated load and the IT equipment load. The IT load comprises critical systems and electrical power transformation, which may include servers, storage and networking power use, and operations affecting monthly server CPU utilization percentages.

    Develop two sets of IT load models using two scenarios, one at the maximum estimated IT load rating and the second at the startup IT rating expected at the time of commissioning.

    Document the energy modeling input assumptions for unregulated loads. Unregulated loads should be modeled accurately to reflect the actual expected energy consumption of the building.

    If unregulated loads are not identical for both the baseline and the proposed building performance rating, follow the exceptional calculation method (ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2010, G2.5) to document measures that reduce unregulated loads.

    Alternative Compliance Paths (ACPs)

    Canada ACP - NECB

    Projects in Canada may instead demonstrate a percentage improvement in the proposed building performance rating compared with the baseline according to the National Energy Code for Buildings (NECB) 2011. The same percentage cost improvement in energy performance is required to meet the Prerequisite, and the same points for cost percentage improvement in energy performance are applicable for the Credit.

    The following conditions (where applicable) must be met. Note that unless otherwise noted, CanQUEST (the Canadian energy modelling software based on eQUEST that performs NECB 2011 compliance runs) does not implement many of these conditions correctly and would require corresponding modifications to the Reference case.

    1. Comply with mandatory requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2010
    2. ASHRAE 90.1-2010 mandatory requirements must be met, in addition to the performance path limitations referenced in the NECB 2011 Sections 3.4.1.2, 5.4.1.2 and 6.4.1.2. In cases where ASHRAE and the NECBC reference requirements concerning the same item, the more stringent requirement shall be adhered to.

      The following exceptions apply:

    • ASHRAE 90.1-2010 mandatory items 6.4.3.9, 9.4.1.2b, 9.4.1.4, 9.4.1.5, 9.4.3

  • Apply fenestration area convention similar to ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  • Maintain the same FWR (as defined by NECB, including doors) for the Reference as exists in the Proposed Design, up to the prescribed maximum. If the Proposed Design’s FWR exceeds the prescribed FWR, scale down the fenestrations in the Reference case accordingly.

  • Apply skylight area convention similar to ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  • Maintain the same SRR for the Reference as exists in the Proposed Design, up to the prescribed 5% maximum. If the Proposed Design’s SRR exceeds 5%, scale down the skylights in the Reference case accordingly.

  • Model proposed and reference outside air similar to ASHRAE 90.1-2010
  • Proposed and reference (baseline) outside air rates shall be modeled as per ASHRAE 90.1 – 2010 (G3.1.2.6).

  • Apply ASHRAE kitchen exhaust demand ventilation requirements
  • Provide for the same demand ventilation requirements as described in ASHRAE Appendix G3.1.1.d.

  • Apply ASHRAE’s chiller heat recovery requirements
  • Provide for the same chiller heat recovery requirements as applies to ASHRAE.

  • Apply supply air temperature reset controlled based on warmest zone
  • Reset the minimum supply air temperature to satisfy the cooling requirements of the warmest zone, as stipulated in NECB Section 5.2.8.8. Note that this control setting is already corrected in CanQUEST for the Reference case.

  • Account for uninsulated structural penetrations if they exceed 2% of net wall area
  • The 2% allowance may be applied, but based on the net opaque wall area, not the entire building envelope area.

  • Follow ASHRAE/LEED rules for renovations to existing buildings
  • Model existing components consistent with ASHRAE and LEED provisions.

  • Account for all anticipated energy use in building
  • Fully account for all energy end-uses in the energy performance modelling.

  • DES Systems are to be modeled according to Option 1, Path 1 or Option 1, Path 2 as indicated in the LEED v4 Reference Guide
  • The following exceptions apply:

    • Option 1, Path 1 - Do not apply ASHRAE 90.1-2010 requirements for purchased heating and cooling. Under this ACP, purchased heating and cooling (as applicable) are modeled as cost-neutral in the baseline and proposed case. Local rates for purchased heating (fossil fuel based) and cooling are used to establish the purchased heating and cooling costs. The energy model's scope accounts for only downstream equipment, plus purchased heating and cooling. NECB clause 8.4.3.6 does not apply for LEED projects.
    • Model baseline systems in accordance with NECB requirements, with DX coils replaced with chilled water coils if purchased cooling is present and fossil-fired furnaces replaced with hot water coils if purchased heating is present.
    • Option 1, Path 2: Do not apply ASHRAE 90.1-2010 requirements for baseline systems. Model baseline systems in accordance with NECB requirements for onsite generated equipment (i.e. assume building is not connected to a DES and the proposed building is modeled with a virtual plant according to LEED v4 Reference Guide requirements).

    Cost estimates for this credit

    On each BD+C v4 credit, LEEDuser offers the wisdom of a team of architects, engineers, cost estimators, and LEED experts with hundreds of LEED projects between then. They analyzed the sustainable design strategies associated with each LEED credit, but also to assign actual costs to those strategies.

    Our tab contains overall cost guidance, notes on what “soft costs” to expect, and a strategy-by-strategy breakdown of what to consider and what it might cost, in percentage premiums, actual costs, or both.

    This information is also available in a full PDF download in The Cost of LEED v4 report.

    Learn more about The Cost of LEED v4 »

    In the end, LEED is all about documentation. LEEDuser’s Documentation Toolkit, for premium members only, saves you time and helps you avoid mistakes with:

    • Calculators to help assess credit compliance.
    • Tracking spreadsheets for materials purchases.
    • Spreadsheets and forms to give to subs and other team members.
    • Guidance documents on arcane LEED issues.
    • Sample templates to help guide your narratives and LEED Online submissions.
    • Examples of actual submissions from certified LEED projects.

    Do the required savings for this prerequisite (and credit) need to come only from building energy, or also process loads?

    The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

    (If you're already a premium member, log in here.)

    Our project doesn't have enough energy savings to earn the prerequisite. Can we get there by incorporating onsite renewables?

    The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

    (If you're already a premium member, log in here.)

    Our proposed design has insulation R-values that are below those prescribed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. Can we still meet the prerequisite?

    The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

    (If you're already a premium member, log in here.)

    LEEDuser expert

    Marcus Sheffer

    7group / Energy Opportunities
    LEED Fellow

    See all LEEDuser forum discussions about this credit » Subscribe to new discussions about Data-Centers-NC-v4 EAp2