LEED v4
Data Centers – NC
Energy and Atmosphere

Enhanced refrigerant management

LEED CREDIT

# Data-Centers-NC-v4 EAc6: Enhanced Refrigerant Management1 point

SPECIAL REPORT

### LEEDuser expert

#### Pamela Mendez

WSP

SPECIAL REPORT

LEEDuser’s viewpoint

### Frank advice from LEED experts

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Credit language

#### Requirements

##### Option 1. No refrigerants or low-impact refrigerants (1 point)

Do not use refrigerants, or use only refrigerants (naturally occurring or synthetic) that have an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero and a global warming potential (GWP) of less than 50.

OR

##### Option 2. Calculation of refrigerant impact (1 point)

Select refrigerants that are used in heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment to minimize or eliminate the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and climate change. The combination of all new and existing base building and tenant HVAC&R equipment that serve the project must comply with the following formula:

IP units

 LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 100

SI units

 LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 13

Calculation definitions for
LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 100
(IP units)

Calculation definitions for
LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 13
(SI units)

LCODP = [ODPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCODP = [ODPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCGWP = [GWPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCGWP = [GWPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCODP: Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential
(lb CFC 11/Ton-Year)

LCODP: Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential
(kg CFC 11/(kW/year))

LCGWP: Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential
(lb CO2/Ton-Year)

LCGWP: Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential
(kg CO2/kW-year)

GWPr: Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 12,000 lb CO2/lbr)

GWPr: Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 12,000 kg CO2/kg r)

ODPr: Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 0.2 lb CFC 11/lbr)

ODPr: Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 0.2 kg CFC 11/kg r)

Lr: Refrigerant Leakage Rate
(2.0%)

Lr: Refrigerant Leakage Rate
(2.0%)

Mr: End-of-life Refrigerant Loss
(10%)

Mr: End-of-life Refrigerant Loss
(10%)

Rc: Refrigerant Charge
(0.5 to 5.0 lbs of refrigerant per ton of gross AHRI rated cooling capacity)

Rc: Refrigerant Charge
(0.065 to 0.65 kg of refrigerant per kW of AHRI rated or Eurovent Certified cooling capacity)

Life: Equipment Life
(10 years; default based on equipment type, unless otherwise demonstrated)

Life: Equipment Life
(10 years; default based on equipment type, unless otherwise demonstrated)

For multiple types of equipment, calculate a weighted average of all base building HVAC&R equipment, using the following formula:

IP units

SI units

∑ ( LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ) x Qunit

≤ 100

∑ ( LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ) x Qunit

≤ 13

Qtotal

Qtotal

Calculation definitions for
[ ∑ (LCGWP + LCODP x 105) x Qunit ] / Qtotal ≤ 100

Calculation definitions for
[ ∑ (LCGWP + LCODP x 105) x Qunit ] / Qtotal ≤ 13

(IP units) (SI units)

Qunit = Gross AHRI rated cooling capacity of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit (Tons)

Qunit = Eurovent Certified cooling capacity of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit (kW)

Qtotal = Total gross AHRI rated cooling capacity of all HVAC or refrigeration

Qtotal = Total Eurovent Certified cooling capacity of all HVAC or refrigeration (kW)

What does it cost?

### Cost estimates for this credit

On each BD+C v4 credit, LEEDuser offers the wisdom of a team of architects, engineers, cost estimators, and LEED experts with hundreds of LEED projects between then. They analyzed the sustainable design strategies associated with each LEED credit, but also to assign actual costs to those strategies.

Our tab contains overall cost guidance, notes on what “soft costs” to expect, and a strategy-by-strategy breakdown of what to consider and what it might cost, in percentage premiums, actual costs, or both.

This information is also available in a full PDF download in The Cost of LEED v4 report.

### How can I determine the leakage rate of my equipment?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### Should all commercial refrigerant equipment be accounted for, including both upright and under-counter? What about walk-in refrigerators? Ice makers?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### I'm working on a renovation project and we'll be keeping some of the existing equipment. Should we include these systems in our calculations?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### What is the required timeline for completing a CFC phase-out for this credit?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### The refrigerant type I need to enter is missing from the credit form. What should I do?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### Are HCFC or HFC refrigerants considered CFC-based refrigerants?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

7/10/2020Updated: 6/10/2021
Form Update
Description of change:
Under Option 2 of the v4 BD+C/ID+C credit form and v4 O+M credit form for EA credit Enhanced Refrigerant Management:

In the Table for Mechanical cooling and refrigeration equipment, under the column "Refrigerant", add "Other (specify)" as the last option in the drop-down list.

Next to the table, add margin note: "Projects that select "Other" must provide documentation of the ODPr and the GWPr values for the refrigerant."
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
7/1/2016
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

Our project is connected to a district energy system which provides both heating and cooling for the building; no additional building-level cooling systems are installed. The district system draws heavily on deep lake cooling with a complement of refrigerant-based cooling. We also have walk-in refrigerators on the premises. We are not permitted to count the deep lake cooling with a refrigerant factor of zero, so because the walk-in refrigerators use refrigerants with a high impact (according to the LEED calculation), we exceed the impact limit of 100 for the credit even though the project?s cooling capacity is largely provided by refrigerant-free sources.
We propose a calculation methodology that demonstrates a design case reduction of the total refrigerant impact as compared to the baseline case:
• The baseline case is calculated by factoring the total cooling capacity of the building?s baseline case and a refrigerant impact of 100 per ton. The demand (during the simulated year) is 1496 kW for the baseline case and 1704 (483,9 tons) installed capacity, as per the EAp2 form and the EA Section 1.4 Tables respectively.
o total design case cooling capacity = 483.9 tons
o total refrigerant impact = 483.9 x 100 = 48390

• The design case factors the labeled capacity on the district energy system?s heat exchanger (district cooling exchanger) and the walk-in refrigerator equipment, and their respective refrigerants.
o total design case cooling capacity = 393.7 tons
o total refrigerant impact = 393.7 x 86 = 33798

• Total reduction in cooling demand = 393.7 / 483.9 = 81.36 (18.64% reduction)
• Total reduction in refrigerant impact = 33798 / 48390 = 69.85 (30.15% reduction)

The calculation confirms that the refrigerant impact reduction is in excess of that associated with the reduced cooling capacity. We would like this to be an ACP.

Ruling:

The applicant proposes an alternate approach to the enhanced refrigerant impact credit which allows credit for the portion of cooling that is provided by systems that contain no refrigerants.

It is acceptable for the applicant to document that the refrigerant impact for the project (including downstream and upstream systems) is less than a refrigerant impact allowance calculated based on the Baseline cooling capacity* from the EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance Baseline energy model. However, the allowance calculated based on the cooling capacity shall be limited to 75 per ton (versus 100 per ton allowed using the compliance path defined in the Rating System Language for Proposed equipment).

To calculate the Baseline case allowance, multiply the total Baseline cooling capacity from the EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance model by a refrigerant impact of 75 per ton (in this case 483.9 x 75 = 36,292).

To calculate the Proposed case refrigerant impact, complete the EAc4: Refrigerant Impact form for the proposed systems (including upstream and on-site equipment). [Note: for upstream equipment, enter the capacity of the upstream equipment by multiplying the equipment capacity by the proportion of building loads to total district energy cooling loads. For example, if the building loads represent 10% of the district energy cooling loads, multiply the capacity of each piece of upstream equipment by 10%].

If the total refrigerant impact for the proposed design (including upstream systems) is less than the Baseline refrigerant impact allowance identified above, the project shall be deemed to comply with this alternative compliance path.

If using this path, please ensure that energy simulation output files showing both the Baseline cooling and refrigeration capacities AND the Baseline cooling and refrigeration peak operating capacities are uploaded either in EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance or in this credit.

* For the purposes of this Alternative Refrigerant Impact calculation, all uncooled spaces must be excluded from the total Baseline cooling capacity reported unless the documentation demonstrates how passive cooling has been achieved for these spaces.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes
7/8/2017
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

What capacity is to be used for centrifugal chillers that, due to their selection conditions, cannot operate at AHRI standard conditions?

The AHRI flow rates are based on capacity. This leads to circular calculation since AHRI standard conditions are dependent on capacity, but capacity is the desired output. How does the project team resolve this circular calculation?

Ruling:

To determine the Gross AHRI rated cooling capacity (tons) of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit that cannot operate at AHRI standard conditions, use the design and selected conditions of the equipment drawing or schedule. Enter this cooling capacity in the Qunit (tons) column in Table. Mechanical and Cooling and Refrigeration Equipment in the credit form.

To determine unit capacity in tons for centrifugal chillers that cannot operate at AHRI standard conditions, use selected flow rates for the evaporator, and use standard AHRI temperatures established for the individual HVAC or refrigeration unit.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes

Documentation toolkit

### The motherlode of cheat sheets

LEEDuser’s Documentation Toolkit is loaded with calculators to help assess credit compliance, tracking spreadsheets for materials, sample templates to help guide your narratives and LEED Online submissions, and examples of actual submissions from certified LEED projects for you to check your work against. To get your plaque, start with the right toolkit.

WSP

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#### Requirements

##### Option 1. No refrigerants or low-impact refrigerants (1 point)

Do not use refrigerants, or use only refrigerants (naturally occurring or synthetic) that have an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero and a global warming potential (GWP) of less than 50.

OR

##### Option 2. Calculation of refrigerant impact (1 point)

Select refrigerants that are used in heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment to minimize or eliminate the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and climate change. The combination of all new and existing base building and tenant HVAC&R equipment that serve the project must comply with the following formula:

IP units

 LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 100

SI units

 LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 13

Calculation definitions for
LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 100
(IP units)

Calculation definitions for
LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 13
(SI units)

LCODP = [ODPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCODP = [ODPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCGWP = [GWPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCGWP = [GWPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life

LCODP: Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential
(lb CFC 11/Ton-Year)

LCODP: Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential
(kg CFC 11/(kW/year))

LCGWP: Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential
(lb CO2/Ton-Year)

LCGWP: Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential
(kg CO2/kW-year)

GWPr: Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 12,000 lb CO2/lbr)

GWPr: Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 12,000 kg CO2/kg r)

ODPr: Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 0.2 lb CFC 11/lbr)

ODPr: Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant
(0 to 0.2 kg CFC 11/kg r)

Lr: Refrigerant Leakage Rate
(2.0%)

Lr: Refrigerant Leakage Rate
(2.0%)

Mr: End-of-life Refrigerant Loss
(10%)

Mr: End-of-life Refrigerant Loss
(10%)

Rc: Refrigerant Charge
(0.5 to 5.0 lbs of refrigerant per ton of gross AHRI rated cooling capacity)

Rc: Refrigerant Charge
(0.065 to 0.65 kg of refrigerant per kW of AHRI rated or Eurovent Certified cooling capacity)

Life: Equipment Life
(10 years; default based on equipment type, unless otherwise demonstrated)

Life: Equipment Life
(10 years; default based on equipment type, unless otherwise demonstrated)

For multiple types of equipment, calculate a weighted average of all base building HVAC&R equipment, using the following formula:

IP units

SI units

∑ ( LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ) x Qunit

≤ 100

∑ ( LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ) x Qunit

≤ 13

Qtotal

Qtotal

Calculation definitions for
[ ∑ (LCGWP + LCODP x 105) x Qunit ] / Qtotal ≤ 100

Calculation definitions for
[ ∑ (LCGWP + LCODP x 105) x Qunit ] / Qtotal ≤ 13

(IP units) (SI units)

Qunit = Gross AHRI rated cooling capacity of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit (Tons)

Qunit = Eurovent Certified cooling capacity of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit (kW)

Qtotal = Total gross AHRI rated cooling capacity of all HVAC or refrigeration

Qtotal = Total Eurovent Certified cooling capacity of all HVAC or refrigeration (kW)

### Cost estimates for this credit

On each BD+C v4 credit, LEEDuser offers the wisdom of a team of architects, engineers, cost estimators, and LEED experts with hundreds of LEED projects between then. They analyzed the sustainable design strategies associated with each LEED credit, but also to assign actual costs to those strategies.

Our tab contains overall cost guidance, notes on what “soft costs” to expect, and a strategy-by-strategy breakdown of what to consider and what it might cost, in percentage premiums, actual costs, or both.

This information is also available in a full PDF download in The Cost of LEED v4 report.

In the end, LEED is all about documentation. LEEDuser’s Documentation Toolkit, for premium members only, saves you time and helps you avoid mistakes with:

• Calculators to help assess credit compliance.
• Tracking spreadsheets for materials purchases.
• Spreadsheets and forms to give to subs and other team members.
• Guidance documents on arcane LEED issues.
• Sample templates to help guide your narratives and LEED Online submissions.
• Examples of actual submissions from certified LEED projects.

### How can I determine the leakage rate of my equipment?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### Should all commercial refrigerant equipment be accounted for, including both upright and under-counter? What about walk-in refrigerators? Ice makers?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### I'm working on a renovation project and we'll be keeping some of the existing equipment. Should we include these systems in our calculations?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### What is the required timeline for completing a CFC phase-out for this credit?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### The refrigerant type I need to enter is missing from the credit form. What should I do?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

### Are HCFC or HFC refrigerants considered CFC-based refrigerants?

The answer to this question is available to LEEDuser premium members. Start a free trial »

7/10/2020Updated: 6/10/2021
Form Update
Description of change:
Under Option 2 of the v4 BD+C/ID+C credit form and v4 O+M credit form for EA credit Enhanced Refrigerant Management:

In the Table for Mechanical cooling and refrigeration equipment, under the column "Refrigerant", add "Other (specify)" as the last option in the drop-down list.

Next to the table, add margin note: "Projects that select "Other" must provide documentation of the ODPr and the GWPr values for the refrigerant."
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
7/1/2016
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

Our project is connected to a district energy system which provides both heating and cooling for the building; no additional building-level cooling systems are installed. The district system draws heavily on deep lake cooling with a complement of refrigerant-based cooling. We also have walk-in refrigerators on the premises. We are not permitted to count the deep lake cooling with a refrigerant factor of zero, so because the walk-in refrigerators use refrigerants with a high impact (according to the LEED calculation), we exceed the impact limit of 100 for the credit even though the project?s cooling capacity is largely provided by refrigerant-free sources.
We propose a calculation methodology that demonstrates a design case reduction of the total refrigerant impact as compared to the baseline case:
• The baseline case is calculated by factoring the total cooling capacity of the building?s baseline case and a refrigerant impact of 100 per ton. The demand (during the simulated year) is 1496 kW for the baseline case and 1704 (483,9 tons) installed capacity, as per the EAp2 form and the EA Section 1.4 Tables respectively.
o total design case cooling capacity = 483.9 tons
o total refrigerant impact = 483.9 x 100 = 48390

• The design case factors the labeled capacity on the district energy system?s heat exchanger (district cooling exchanger) and the walk-in refrigerator equipment, and their respective refrigerants.
o total design case cooling capacity = 393.7 tons
o total refrigerant impact = 393.7 x 86 = 33798

• Total reduction in cooling demand = 393.7 / 483.9 = 81.36 (18.64% reduction)
• Total reduction in refrigerant impact = 33798 / 48390 = 69.85 (30.15% reduction)

The calculation confirms that the refrigerant impact reduction is in excess of that associated with the reduced cooling capacity. We would like this to be an ACP.

Ruling:

The applicant proposes an alternate approach to the enhanced refrigerant impact credit which allows credit for the portion of cooling that is provided by systems that contain no refrigerants.

It is acceptable for the applicant to document that the refrigerant impact for the project (including downstream and upstream systems) is less than a refrigerant impact allowance calculated based on the Baseline cooling capacity* from the EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance Baseline energy model. However, the allowance calculated based on the cooling capacity shall be limited to 75 per ton (versus 100 per ton allowed using the compliance path defined in the Rating System Language for Proposed equipment).

To calculate the Baseline case allowance, multiply the total Baseline cooling capacity from the EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance model by a refrigerant impact of 75 per ton (in this case 483.9 x 75 = 36,292).

To calculate the Proposed case refrigerant impact, complete the EAc4: Refrigerant Impact form for the proposed systems (including upstream and on-site equipment). [Note: for upstream equipment, enter the capacity of the upstream equipment by multiplying the equipment capacity by the proportion of building loads to total district energy cooling loads. For example, if the building loads represent 10% of the district energy cooling loads, multiply the capacity of each piece of upstream equipment by 10%].

If the total refrigerant impact for the proposed design (including upstream systems) is less than the Baseline refrigerant impact allowance identified above, the project shall be deemed to comply with this alternative compliance path.

If using this path, please ensure that energy simulation output files showing both the Baseline cooling and refrigeration capacities AND the Baseline cooling and refrigeration peak operating capacities are uploaded either in EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance or in this credit.

* For the purposes of this Alternative Refrigerant Impact calculation, all uncooled spaces must be excluded from the total Baseline cooling capacity reported unless the documentation demonstrates how passive cooling has been achieved for these spaces.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes
7/8/2017
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

What capacity is to be used for centrifugal chillers that, due to their selection conditions, cannot operate at AHRI standard conditions?

The AHRI flow rates are based on capacity. This leads to circular calculation since AHRI standard conditions are dependent on capacity, but capacity is the desired output. How does the project team resolve this circular calculation?

Ruling:

To determine the Gross AHRI rated cooling capacity (tons) of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit that cannot operate at AHRI standard conditions, use the design and selected conditions of the equipment drawing or schedule. Enter this cooling capacity in the Qunit (tons) column in Table. Mechanical and Cooling and Refrigeration Equipment in the credit form.

To determine unit capacity in tons for centrifugal chillers that cannot operate at AHRI standard conditions, use selected flow rates for the evaporator, and use standard AHRI temperatures established for the individual HVAC or refrigeration unit.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes

WSP