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LEED v4.1

Commercial Interiors

Energy and Atmosphere
Optimize Energy Performance

LEED CREDIT

CI-v4.1 EAc2: Optimize Energy Performance 1-24 points

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SPECIAL REPORT

LEEDuser expert

Marcus Sheffer

7group / Energy Opportunities
LEED Fellow

SPECIAL REPORT

LEEDuser’s viewpoint

Explore this LEED credit

Post your questions on this credit in the forum, and click on the credit language tab to review to the LEED requirements.

Credit language

USGBC logo

© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To achieve increasing levels of energy performance beyond the prerequisite standard to reduce environmental and economic harms associated with excessive energy use.

Requirements

Analyze efficiency measures during the design process and account for the results in design decision-making. Analysis can include energy simulation of efficiency opportunities, energy simulation analyses for similar projects, or published data from energy analyses performed for similar projects (such as AEDGs).

Analyze efficiency measures focused on load reduction and HVAC-related strategies; passive measures are acceptable. Project the potential energy savings and cost implications for all affected systems.

Select one of the options below.

Option 1. Tenant-Level Energy Performance Compliance (1–24 points)

Demonstrate a Performance Cost Index (PCI)1 below the Performance Cost Index Target (PCIt) calculated in accordance with Section 4.2.1.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016, Appendix G, Table 4.2.1.1. For mixed use projects, the required PCI shall be calculated by using an area weighted average of the building types.

Calculate the PCI, PCIt, and percentage improvement using metrics of cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For each energy source serving the project, the GHG emission factors must be identical for the Baseline and Proposed building models.

LEED points are calculated based on the project percent improvement PCI below the PCIt using metrics of cost and GHG emissions. Total points have been divided equally between the metrics of energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions. Points are awarded according to Table 1 and Table 2.

For project percent improvement for the cost metric, on-site renewable energy may be subtracted from proposed energy cost prior to calculating proposed building performance per ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 Section G 2.4.1.

Table 1. Points for percentage improvement in energy performance – % Cost PCI below PCIt (12 points)

ID+C Points
2% 2
5% 3
8% 4
12% 5
15% 6
18% 7
21% 8
24% 9
27% 10
30% 11
33% 12
36% EP

On-site renewable energy may be subtracted from proposed greenhouse gas emissions prior to calculating proposed building performance per ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 Section G 2.4.1. New off-site renewable energy as defined in EA credit Renewable Energy may be subtracted from proposed greenhouse gas emissions prior to calculating proposed building performance.

Table 2. Points for percentage improvement in energy performance – % Greenhouse Gas Emissions PCI below PCIt (12 points ID+C)

ID+C Points
2% 2
5% 3
9% 4
13% 5
18% 6
24% 7
32% 8
40% 9
50% 10
65% 11
80% 12
100% EP

Retail only
For all process loads, define a clear baseline to compare with proposed improvements. The baselines in Appendix 3, Tables 1–4, represent industry standards and may be used without additional documentation. Calculate the baseline and design as follows:

  • Appliances and equipment. For appliances and equipment not covered in Appendix 3, Tables 1–4 indicate hourly energy use for proposed and budget equipment, along with estimated daily use hours. Use the total estimated appliance/equipment energy use in the energy simulation model as a plug load. Reduced use time (schedule change) is not a category of energy improvement in this credit. ENERGY STAR ratings and evaluations are a valid basis for performing this calculation.
  • Display lighting. For display lighting, use the space by space method of determining allowed lighting power under ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2016, with errata (or a USGBC-approved equivalent standard for projects outside the U.S.), to determine the appropriate baseline for both the general building space and the display lighting.
  • Refrigeration. For hard-wired refrigeration loads, model the effect of energy performance improvements with a simulation program designed to account for refrigeration equipment.

OR

Option 2. Prescriptive Compliance (1–15 points)

Use any combination of the strategies in any or all of the categories below.

To be eligible for Option 2, projects must use the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 Prescriptive compliance path in EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance. To be eligible for ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) envelope and lighting strategies, the project space must meet the Scope requirements of the applicable AEDGs (or combination of AEDGs for mixed use). To be eligible for AEDG HVAC strategies, the entire building where the project is located must meet the Scope requirements of the applicable AEDGs.

Base Building Systems (1-5 points)

For base building systems that serve the project, as well as any applicable improvements that are part of the project, document compliance with the following according to base building type and climate zone.

Building Envelope (1-2 points)
  • Advanced Energy Design Guides
    • Comply with the recommendations in the appropriate ASHRAE 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for all roofs, walls, floors, slabs, doors, vestibules, and continuous air barriers. (1 point)
    • AND / OR

    • Comply with the recommendations in the appropriate ASHRAE 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for all vertical fenestration.
  • OR

  • Climate Zones 1 – 2:
    • Thermal Mass Enclosure: More than 70% of opaque above-grade wall area meets ASHRAE 90.1-2016 definition for “mass wall”; and more than 70% of floor area meets ASHRAE 90.1-2016 definition for “mass floor” (1 point)
    • AND / OR

    • Demonstrate a 25% envelope UA reduction beyond ASHRAE 90.1-2016 prescriptive envelope requirements (1 point)
  • OR

  • Climate Zones 3 – 8:
    • Demonstrate an envelope UA reduction beyond ASHRAE 90.1-2016 prescriptive envelope requirements:
      • 25% UA reduction (1 point)
      • 50% UA reduction (1 point)
HVAC and Service Water Heating Equipment Efficiency Systems (1 - 3 points)
  • Advanced Energy Design Guides: For all base building and tenant HVAC systems that serve the project, comply with the HVAC efficiency and control recommendations in the appropriate ASHRAE 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide. (3 points)
  • OR

  • Demonstrate an improvement beyond ASHRAE/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2016 prescriptive requirements for the following base building and tenant systems serving the project space:
    • Reduction in fan power total allowance of 30% (1 point)
    • AND / OR

    • Improvement in efficiency for at least 75% of the combined cooling, heating, and service water heating capacity:
      • 15% (1 point)
      • 30% (2 points)

Electric resistance heating except heat pump auxiliary heat must be included in total capacity.

Tenant Systems (1-10 points)
Interior Lighting Systems (1–5 points)
  • Lighting Power Density (1–3 points) Reduce connected lighting power density below that allowed by ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2016, either using the space-by-space method or applying the whole-building lighting power allowance to the entire tenant space. Points are awarded according to Table 3.
Table 3. Points for percentage reduction in lighting power density

Percentage below standard LPD Points
15% 1
30% 2
45% 3
Daylighting Controls (1–2 points)
  • Daylighting Controls (1-2 points) Install daylight-responsive controls for a given percentage of connected lighting load (lighting in non-regularly occupied space with occupant sensor controls may be excluded from connected lighting load).
    • 35% (1 point)
    • 70% (2 points)
Equipment and Appliances (1–5 points)

Install a percentage (by rated power) of eligible equipment and appliances meeting the following requirements:

  • ENERGY STAR equipment including appliances, office equipment, electronics, and commercial food service equipment (lighting and building envelope products are excluded from this credit). (Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) equipment may be used in lieu of Energy Star equipment where applicable).
  • Prescriptive commercial kitchen and refrigeration equipment requirements listed in Appendix 3, Table 1.

The project scope of work must include at least 0.25 Watts per square foot of eligible equipment to apply this strategy, either limited to the eligible equipment within the project scope of work, or including all new and existing equipment. For existing equipment, ENERGY STAR or EPEAT requirements may be referenced to the date of purchase of the equipment.

Percent of Eligible Equipment Installed by Rated Power:

  • 20% (1 point)
  • 40% (2 points)
  • 60% (3 points)
  • 80% (4 points)
  • 100% (5 points)
See all forum discussions about this credit »

What does it cost?

Cost estimates for this credit

On each BD+C v4 credit, LEEDuser offers the wisdom of a team of architects, engineers, cost estimators, and LEED experts with hundreds of LEED projects between then. They analyzed the sustainable design strategies associated with each LEED credit, but also to assign actual costs to those strategies.

Our tab contains overall cost guidance, notes on what “soft costs” to expect, and a strategy-by-strategy breakdown of what to consider and what it might cost, in percentage premiums, actual costs, or both.

This information is also available in a full PDF download in The Cost of LEED v4 report.

Learn more about The Cost of LEED v4 »

Documentation toolkit

The motherlode of cheat sheets

LEEDuser’s Documentation Toolkit is loaded with calculators to help assess credit compliance, tracking spreadsheets for materials, sample templates to help guide your narratives and LEED Online submissions, and examples of actual submissions from certified LEED projects for you to check your work against. To get your plaque, start with the right toolkit.

LEEDuser expert

Marcus Sheffer

7group / Energy Opportunities
LEED Fellow

USGBC logo

© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To achieve increasing levels of energy performance beyond the prerequisite standard to reduce environmental and economic harms associated with excessive energy use.

Requirements

Analyze efficiency measures during the design process and account for the results in design decision-making. Analysis can include energy simulation of efficiency opportunities, energy simulation analyses for similar projects, or published data from energy analyses performed for similar projects (such as AEDGs).

Analyze efficiency measures focused on load reduction and HVAC-related strategies; passive measures are acceptable. Project the potential energy savings and cost implications for all affected systems.

Select one of the options below.

Option 1. Tenant-Level Energy Performance Compliance (1–24 points)

Demonstrate a Performance Cost Index (PCI)1 below the Performance Cost Index Target (PCIt) calculated in accordance with Section 4.2.1.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016, Appendix G, Table 4.2.1.1. For mixed use projects, the required PCI shall be calculated by using an area weighted average of the building types.

Calculate the PCI, PCIt, and percentage improvement using metrics of cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For each energy source serving the project, the GHG emission factors must be identical for the Baseline and Proposed building models.

LEED points are calculated based on the project percent improvement PCI below the PCIt using metrics of cost and GHG emissions. Total points have been divided equally between the metrics of energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions. Points are awarded according to Table 1 and Table 2.

For project percent improvement for the cost metric, on-site renewable energy may be subtracted from proposed energy cost prior to calculating proposed building performance per ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 Section G 2.4.1.

Table 1. Points for percentage improvement in energy performance – % Cost PCI below PCIt (12 points)

ID+C Points
2% 2
5% 3
8% 4
12% 5
15% 6
18% 7
21% 8
24% 9
27% 10
30% 11
33% 12
36% EP

On-site renewable energy may be subtracted from proposed greenhouse gas emissions prior to calculating proposed building performance per ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 Section G 2.4.1. New off-site renewable energy as defined in EA credit Renewable Energy may be subtracted from proposed greenhouse gas emissions prior to calculating proposed building performance.

Table 2. Points for percentage improvement in energy performance – % Greenhouse Gas Emissions PCI below PCIt (12 points ID+C)

ID+C Points
2% 2
5% 3
9% 4
13% 5
18% 6
24% 7
32% 8
40% 9
50% 10
65% 11
80% 12
100% EP

Retail only
For all process loads, define a clear baseline to compare with proposed improvements. The baselines in Appendix 3, Tables 1–4, represent industry standards and may be used without additional documentation. Calculate the baseline and design as follows:

  • Appliances and equipment. For appliances and equipment not covered in Appendix 3, Tables 1–4 indicate hourly energy use for proposed and budget equipment, along with estimated daily use hours. Use the total estimated appliance/equipment energy use in the energy simulation model as a plug load. Reduced use time (schedule change) is not a category of energy improvement in this credit. ENERGY STAR ratings and evaluations are a valid basis for performing this calculation.
  • Display lighting. For display lighting, use the space by space method of determining allowed lighting power under ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2016, with errata (or a USGBC-approved equivalent standard for projects outside the U.S.), to determine the appropriate baseline for both the general building space and the display lighting.
  • Refrigeration. For hard-wired refrigeration loads, model the effect of energy performance improvements with a simulation program designed to account for refrigeration equipment.

OR

Option 2. Prescriptive Compliance (1–15 points)

Use any combination of the strategies in any or all of the categories below.

To be eligible for Option 2, projects must use the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 Prescriptive compliance path in EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance. To be eligible for ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) envelope and lighting strategies, the project space must meet the Scope requirements of the applicable AEDGs (or combination of AEDGs for mixed use). To be eligible for AEDG HVAC strategies, the entire building where the project is located must meet the Scope requirements of the applicable AEDGs.

Base Building Systems (1-5 points)

For base building systems that serve the project, as well as any applicable improvements that are part of the project, document compliance with the following according to base building type and climate zone.

Building Envelope (1-2 points)
  • Advanced Energy Design Guides
    • Comply with the recommendations in the appropriate ASHRAE 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for all roofs, walls, floors, slabs, doors, vestibules, and continuous air barriers. (1 point)
    • AND / OR

    • Comply with the recommendations in the appropriate ASHRAE 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for all vertical fenestration.
  • OR

  • Climate Zones 1 – 2:
    • Thermal Mass Enclosure: More than 70% of opaque above-grade wall area meets ASHRAE 90.1-2016 definition for “mass wall”; and more than 70% of floor area meets ASHRAE 90.1-2016 definition for “mass floor” (1 point)
    • AND / OR

    • Demonstrate a 25% envelope UA reduction beyond ASHRAE 90.1-2016 prescriptive envelope requirements (1 point)
  • OR

  • Climate Zones 3 – 8:
    • Demonstrate an envelope UA reduction beyond ASHRAE 90.1-2016 prescriptive envelope requirements:
      • 25% UA reduction (1 point)
      • 50% UA reduction (1 point)
HVAC and Service Water Heating Equipment Efficiency Systems (1 - 3 points)
  • Advanced Energy Design Guides: For all base building and tenant HVAC systems that serve the project, comply with the HVAC efficiency and control recommendations in the appropriate ASHRAE 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide. (3 points)
  • OR

  • Demonstrate an improvement beyond ASHRAE/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2016 prescriptive requirements for the following base building and tenant systems serving the project space:
    • Reduction in fan power total allowance of 30% (1 point)
    • AND / OR

    • Improvement in efficiency for at least 75% of the combined cooling, heating, and service water heating capacity:
      • 15% (1 point)
      • 30% (2 points)

Electric resistance heating except heat pump auxiliary heat must be included in total capacity.

Tenant Systems (1-10 points)
Interior Lighting Systems (1–5 points)
  • Lighting Power Density (1–3 points) Reduce connected lighting power density below that allowed by ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2016, either using the space-by-space method or applying the whole-building lighting power allowance to the entire tenant space. Points are awarded according to Table 3.
Table 3. Points for percentage reduction in lighting power density

Percentage below standard LPD Points
15% 1
30% 2
45% 3
Daylighting Controls (1–2 points)
  • Daylighting Controls (1-2 points) Install daylight-responsive controls for a given percentage of connected lighting load (lighting in non-regularly occupied space with occupant sensor controls may be excluded from connected lighting load).
    • 35% (1 point)
    • 70% (2 points)
Equipment and Appliances (1–5 points)

Install a percentage (by rated power) of eligible equipment and appliances meeting the following requirements:

  • ENERGY STAR equipment including appliances, office equipment, electronics, and commercial food service equipment (lighting and building envelope products are excluded from this credit). (Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) equipment may be used in lieu of Energy Star equipment where applicable).
  • Prescriptive commercial kitchen and refrigeration equipment requirements listed in Appendix 3, Table 1.

The project scope of work must include at least 0.25 Watts per square foot of eligible equipment to apply this strategy, either limited to the eligible equipment within the project scope of work, or including all new and existing equipment. For existing equipment, ENERGY STAR or EPEAT requirements may be referenced to the date of purchase of the equipment.

Percent of Eligible Equipment Installed by Rated Power:

  • 20% (1 point)
  • 40% (2 points)
  • 60% (3 points)
  • 80% (4 points)
  • 100% (5 points)

LEEDuser expert

Marcus Sheffer

7group / Energy Opportunities
LEED Fellow

See all LEEDuser forum discussions about this credit » Subscribe to new discussions about CI-v4.1 EAc2