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LEED v2009
Healthcare
Sustainable Sites
Heat island effect - nonroof

LEED CREDIT

Healthcare-v2009 SSc7.1: Heat island effect - nonroof 1 point

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Credit language

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© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To reduce heat islands1 to minimize impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats.

Requirements

Option 1
Use any combination of the following strategies for 50% of the site hardscape (including roads, sidewalks, courtyards and parking lots):
  • Provide shade from the existing tree canopy or within 5 years of landscape installation. Landscaping (trees) must be in place at the time of occupancy.
  • Provide shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.
  • Provide shade from architectural devices or structures that have a solar reflectance index2 (SRI) of at least 29.
  • Use hardscape materials with an SRI of at least 29.
  • Use an open-grid pavement system (at least 50% pervious).

OR

Option 2
Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover3. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have an SRI of at least 29, be a vegetated green roof or be covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.
1 Heat islands are defined as thermal gradient differences between developed and underdeveloped areas. 2 The solar reflectance index (SRI) is a measure of the constructed surface's ability to reflect solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. It is defined so that a standardblack surface (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white surface (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100. to calculate the SRI for a given material, obtain the reflectance value and emittance value for the material. SRI is calculated according to ASTM E 1980. Reflectance is measured according to ASTM E 903, ASTM E 1918, or ASTM C 1549. Emittance is measured according to ASTM E408 or ASTM C 1371. 3 For the purposes of this credit, under cover parking is defined as parking underground, under deck, under roof, or under a building.
SITES-LEED Equivalency
This LEED credit (or a component of this credit) has been established as equivalent to a SITES v2 credit or component. For more information on using the equivalency as a substitution in your LEED or SITES project, see this article and guidance document.
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Addenda

8/1/2011Updated: 2/14/2015
Reference Guide Correction
Description of change:
Make the following text bold, "ASTM E408-71(1996)e1, Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques".
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
5/9/2011Updated: 2/14/2015
Reference Guide Correction
Description of change:
Replace SRI for "Typical new gray concrete" with 38
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
10/1/2012
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

Can sidewalks, roads, and other hardscape areas located above a project building\'s underground parking structure, which are required by the governing municipality to be constructed of non-compliant materials, be excluded from the SSc7.2 and SSc7.1 calculations?

Ruling:

Similar to LEED Interpretations #2293 and #3101, sidewalks, roads, and areas that cover un-conditioned spaces (such as parking garages) are considered hardscape or landscape nonroof surfaces. Thus, they should be included in the calculations for SSc7.1 Heat Island Effect- Nonroof. In situations where infrastructure, materials, or surfaces are owned, operated and maintained by the local governing body, project teams may exclude the area of the material from the calculations for SSc7.2 and SSc7.1. This exemption can be applied only if projects do not have any control over the materials used for the surfaces in question. If the materials are owned and operated by the project, but the local jurisdiction specifies that they must meet certain criteria, the materials may not be excluded from the calculations. Applicable Internationally.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes
11/1/2011
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

Would aggregate and chat covered areas be considered hardscape or a non-hardscape, pervious paving type surface? If the aggregate and chat are considered hardscape, what SRI values should be used, or how is the SRI value for these materials determined? If no industry standard is available, is it permissible to compare the aggregate/chat to a material with a known SRI value? Or could we use the value from a comparable color on the Munsell Color Code (or similar)?

Ruling:

Aggregate and chat areas must be considered hardscape, and would not count as open-grid pavement systems, for the purposes of this credit. To determine the SRI for materials that do not have recognized standard values (e.g. new gray concrete), the materials must be individually tested (per LEED NC v2.1 CIR Ruling dated 6/27/2003). As stated in the credit description, it is necessary to provide the documentation indicating the solar reflectance index of the aggregate/chat as meeting the requirement. It is not acceptable to compare materials used on the project to a material with a known SRI value. Color values do not have direct correlation to emissivity and solar reflectance values which are the basis for the SRI calculation. Aggregate may be tested using ASTM E1918-06 (Solar Reflectance) and ASTM E408-71(2008) (Thermal Emittance) and then the SRI may be calculated using ASTM E1980. Applicable internationally.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes
7/27/2009
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

The intent of this credit is to reduce the heat island effect created by large expanses of pavement. For a building to earn option B of the credit, they must provide shade for at least 50% of the provided parking. This can be underground, under a deck, under a roof, or under the building itself. In addition, a building that provides 100% of its parking under cover is eligible to earn an exemplary performance point. One of our project buildings is located in downtown San Francisco and does not provide any parking for building tenants. We believe that this fulfills the intent of the credit because there are no paved parking areas whatsoever that would contribute to the heat island effect. The net heat island effect is the same as a building that provides 100% of parking underground. However, the building that does not have parking at all gets 0 points where as a building that provides 100% parking underground gets 2 points. An existing building that was designed many years ago to reduce heat island effect should still be rewarded under a rating system that was incepted later on. We would like to petition the USGBC to consider awarding 1 point under Option B to projects that have no parking provided.

Ruling:

April 6, 2018 Update: LEED Interpretation 5370 is now applicable to both LEED v2009 and LEED v4 BD+C, ID+C, and O+M projects.

A project building with no onsite parking facilities may be eligible for 1 point under LEED v2009 SSc7.1 and LEED v4 SSc Heat Island Reduction, provided that no nearby offsite parking facilities are leased or owned by the building owner, property manager, or tenants for use by the building occupants. The project team must supply evidence of this by, in single-occupant buildings declaring that no such parking is provided, or in multi-tenant buildings by declaring that no such parking is provided and by detailing the method by which this was assessed. If such offsite facilities are leased or owned, the project team may document compliance with the credit by showing that 50% (O+M) or 75% (BD+C) of the provided spaces meet the Heat Island Reduction Roof requirements.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes
8/1/2011
LEED Interpretation
Inquiry:

Many of the ASTM Standards we reference have been withdrawn, upgraded, or superseded. Provide guidance on which updated standards should be used.

Ruling:

The withdrawn ASTM Standards listed- ASTM E1980-01 and ASTM E903-96- are still the correct references for SSc1: Site Selection, SSc7.1: Heat Island Effect, Non-Roof, and SSc7.2: Heat Island Effect-Roof. These two standards were not withdrawn for technical reasons, but were withdrawn because they had not been updated within 8 years. Testing can still be performed for these as well as the superseded standards. The updated versions of the superseded standards can be used, but are not required:Old: ASTM E408-71(1996), Current: E408-71(2008)Old: ASTM C1371-04a, Current: C1371-04a(2010)Old: ASTM E1918-97, Current: E1918-06 Old: ASTM C1549-04, Current: 1549-09Note: This Interpretations is also applicable to Sustainable Sites Credit 7.2: Heat Island Effect-Roof and Sustainable Sites Credit 1: Site Selection, see LEED Interpretations dated 8/1/2011 ID number 10093 and 10094 respectively. Applicable Internationally.

Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
Yes
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USGBC logo

© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To reduce heat islands1 to minimize impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats.

Requirements

Option 1
Use any combination of the following strategies for 50% of the site hardscape (including roads, sidewalks, courtyards and parking lots):
  • Provide shade from the existing tree canopy or within 5 years of landscape installation. Landscaping (trees) must be in place at the time of occupancy.
  • Provide shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.
  • Provide shade from architectural devices or structures that have a solar reflectance index2 (SRI) of at least 29.
  • Use hardscape materials with an SRI of at least 29.
  • Use an open-grid pavement system (at least 50% pervious).

OR

Option 2
Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover3. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have an SRI of at least 29, be a vegetated green roof or be covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable resource use.
1 Heat islands are defined as thermal gradient differences between developed and underdeveloped areas. 2 The solar reflectance index (SRI) is a measure of the constructed surface's ability to reflect solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. It is defined so that a standardblack surface (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white surface (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100. to calculate the SRI for a given material, obtain the reflectance value and emittance value for the material. SRI is calculated according to ASTM E 1980. Reflectance is measured according to ASTM E 903, ASTM E 1918, or ASTM C 1549. Emittance is measured according to ASTM E408 or ASTM C 1371. 3 For the purposes of this credit, under cover parking is defined as parking underground, under deck, under roof, or under a building.
SITES-LEED Equivalency
This LEED credit (or a component of this credit) has been established as equivalent to a SITES v2 credit or component. For more information on using the equivalency as a substitution in your LEED or SITES project, see this article and guidance document.
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