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LEED v4.1
Data Centers – NC
Energy and Atmosphere
Grid Harmonization

LEED CREDIT

Data-Centers-NC-v4.1 EAc4: Grid Harmonization 1-2 points

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Marcus Sheffer

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© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To increase participation in demand response technologies and programs that make energy generation and distribution systems more efficient, increase grid reliability, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Requirements

Design building and equipment for participation in demand response programs through load shedding or shifting. On-site electricity generation does not meet the intent of this credit.

Case 1. Demand Response Program Available and Participation (2 points)
  • Participate in an existing demand response (DR) program and complete the following activities. Design a system with the capability for real-time, fully-automated DR based on external initiation by a DR Program Provider. Semi-automated DR may be utilized in practice.
  • Enroll in a minimum one-year DR participation amount contractual commitment with a qualified DR program provider, with the intention of multiyear renewal, for at least 10% of the annual on-peak electricity demand. On-peak demand is determined under EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance. The on-peak demand may vary based on the utility climate and pricing structures.
  • Develop a comprehensive plan for meeting the contractual commitment during a Demand Response event.
  • Include the DR processes in the scope of work for the commissioning authority, including participation in at least one full test of the DR plan.
  • Include the DR program and any installed technologies in the building systems manual or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning.
  • Initiate at least one full test of the DR plan.
OR
Case 2. Demand Response Capable Building (1 point)
Have infrastructure in place to take advantage of future demand response programs or dynamic, real-time pricing programs and complete the following activities:
  • Install interval recording meters and have equipment capable of accepting an external signal.
  • Develop a comprehensive plan for shedding at least 10% of the annual on-peak electricity demand. On-peak demand is determined under EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance.
  • Include the DR processes in the scope of work for the commissioning authority, including participation in at least one full test of the DR plan.
  • Include the DR program and any installed technologies in the building systems manual or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning.
  • Contact local utility representatives to discuss participation in future DR programs.
AND / OR
Case 3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies (1-2 points)

Analyze the building’s annual load shape and peak load based as calculated for EA prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance. Review the regional grid load profile using the metric of peak load or peak carbon emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT) provides regional grid emissions data; local utilities may also provide this data.

Coordinate review of building load shape and peak load with review of the regional grid profile to identify the best value load management strategies that the building can provide.

Implement one or more of the load flexibility and management strategies described below for a maximum of up to two points. All projects must install interval recording meters and have equipment capable of accepting an external signal.

Load Flexibility and Management Strategies:
  • Peak Load Optimization: demonstrate that strategy reduces on-peak load by at least 10% as compared to peak electrical demand referenced to the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 compliant case (1 point)
  • Flexible Operating Scenarios: demonstrate that strategy moves at least 10% of peak load by a time period of 2 hours (1 point)
  • On-site thermal and/or electricity storage: demonstrate that strategy reduces on-peak load by at least 10% as compared to peak electrical demand (1 point)
  • Grid resilience technologies: project served by utilities with resilience programs in place, which leverage strategies such as islanding and part-load operation, automatically achieve this credit (1 point)
Include installed technology in the scope of work for the commissioning authority. Include load flexibility and management strategies and installed technologies in the building systems manual or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning.

Contact local utility representatives to discuss participation in future DR programs and to inform utility of building load flexibility and management strategies.

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Addenda

11/10/2020Updated: 11/25/2020
Reference Guide Correction
Description of change:
Step-by-Step Guidance

1. Case 3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies - Step 1 Analyze building load shape: In the second sentence, delete "Use", capitalize the t in "The", and add the word "hourly" before "regional grid emissions data"

Further Explanation

2. Insert new section above the "Grid Harmonization" section titled "On-Peak Electricity Demand" and insert the following text:
"On-peak electricity demand can be determined as one of the following for the purposes of credit compliance:
1. Building peak electricity demand
2. Building demand load coinciding with regional grid peak demand
3. Building demand load coinciding with regional grid peak carbon emissions"

3. In the "Grid Harmonization" section:
- In the sentence that begins "Savings to building owners accrue...", replace "increased building resilience" with "increased grid resilience"
- Insert the following text: "There are a number of methods by which projects can comply with the requirement in Case 2 and Case 3 to install equipment capable of responding to an external signal. External signals can be sent from a variety of sources such as the electric utility, the electricity Independent System Operator (ISO), or a third-party automation organization. The signal can be used to indicate specific events such as a critical price peaks, grid reliability events, high grid demand, or high grid GHG emissions factors; or a continuous signal reporting price, reliability, GHG emissions, or other factors. This equipment may be part of a building automation system, stand-alone equipment, or equipment that is directly integrated with the building system(s) used to achieve the credit, e.g. a packaged rooftop HVAC system."

4. Insert new section after the "Grid Harmonization" section titled "Load Flexibility and Management Strategies" and insert the following text:
"The reference case for demonstrating peak demand reduction via the Flexible Operating Scenarios strategy and the On-site thermal and/or electricity storage strategy is the Proposed design from the Optimize Energy Performance energy model without the peak demand reduction strategy in place."

5. Insert new section after the new "Load Flexibility and Management Strategies" section titled "Peak Load Optimization" and insert the following text:
"To demonstrate that the peak load optimization strategy reduces on-peak load by at least 10% as compared to peak electrical demand, the baseline should be referenced to the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 compliant case. The “Performance Demand Index Target” and “Performance Demand Index” shall be calculated using the same methodology as the PCIT and PCI calculated per ASHRAE 90.1-2016 Appendix G:
Performance Demand Index Target = [Baseline Building Unregulated Electric Demand + (BPF x Baseline Building Regulated Electric Demand)] / Baseline Building Demand

For example, if the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 Building Performance Factor is 0.58, the Baseline regulated demand is 75 kW, and the Baseline unregulated demand is 25 kW for an Office building in climate zone 4A, the Performance Demand Index Target would be calculated as:

Performance Demand Index Target = [25 + (0.58 x 75)]/(25+75) = 0.69

The proposed demand would need to show a 10% improvement beyond this Performance Demand Target. Therefore, for this application:
Proposed demand
In cases where the proposed case incorporates electrification of space heating and/or service water heating compared to the baseline case, project teams have two options for demonstrating peak load optimization:
 If able to demonstrate 10% on-peak load reduction with fuel switching, the project team may complete the calculation without applying corrections to the baseline.
 If unable to demonstrate 10% on-peak load reduction with fuel switching, the project team may increase the baseline building demand by the baseline case fossil fuel heating and service water heating demand divided by 2.0."

6. Insert new section after the new "Peak Load Optimization" section titled "Peak Demand Reduction" and insert the following text:
"The reference case for demonstrating peak demand reduction via the Flexible Operating Scenarios strategy and the On-site thermal and/or electricity storage strategy is the Proposed design from the Optimize Energy Performance energy model without the peak demand reduction strategy in place."

7. Insert new section after the new "Peak Demand Reduction" section titled "Flexible Operating Scenarios" and insert the following text:
"A flexible operating scenario is a strategy that changes a building’s operational schedule in order to reduce peak electricity demand and strain on the grid. Examples of strategies eligible for credit may include:
 Operational changes such as Flexible Work arrangements that are designed to reduce office occupancy during peak operation,
 Shifting laundry hours in a building with high laundry demand to off-peak operation;
 In a manufacturing facility, moving demand-intensive activities to a night shift when demand on the grid is lower."

8. Insert new section after the new "Flexible Operating Scenarios" section titled "Grid Resilience Technologies" and insert the following text:
"This strategy rewards grid islanding or other similar microgrid capability of the LEED project. In some locations, utilities implement Public Safety Power Shutoff (PSPS) events, shutting off power due to the potential for natural disasters such as forest fires. A LEED project’s islanding capability provides resiliency if the grid should go down or power quality is compromised from the grid.

To document grid resilience technologies, the project must provide confirmation of the building’s islanding capability in the event the grid goes offline. Islanding capability must come from renewable power and storage systems; fossil fuel power systems such as gas generators or co-generation systems do not quality for this strategy.

Alternatively, the project may provide documentation confirming participation in a utility resilience plan that is currently in place, e.g. documentation confirms that the project is connected to a microgrid that has been operationalized as part of a utility’s natural disaster mitigation plan. Utility resilience programs and commitments that are planned to be implemented in the future do not qualify for credit."

9. Insert new section after the new "Grid Resilience Technologies" section titled "Single Strategy, Multiple Points" and insert the following text:
"In some cases, a single design or operational strategy may meet the criteria for more than one strategy. For example, under Case 3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies, a thermal energy storage system may meet the criteria for On-site thermal and/or electric storage and Peak Load Optimization. Similarly, a set of demand reduction strategies used to achieve Case 2. Demand Response Capable Building may also meet the criteria for Case 3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies for Peak Load Optimization."

10. Insert new section "Project Type Variations" and insert the following text:
"District Energy Systems
When district energy is modeled for credit in EA credit Optimize Energy Performance, the district energy system (DES) electric demand modeled there must be included in the total demand reported for this credit. When the DES system is included in the EA credit Optimize Energy Performance model, grid harmonization strategies applied to the DES system may be used to document achievement at the building level.

The interval recording meter and building automation system communications may be located in the DES – and not in the building – if strategies in the DES are used to demonstrate full achievement of the credit requirements at the building level."
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
11/10/2020Updated: 11/25/2020
Rating System Correction
Description of change:
Case 2. Demand Response Capable Building

1. Revise the first bullet point so it reads as follows: "Install interval recording meters and have equipment capable of accepting an external signal."

Case 3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies

2. Revise the sentence that begins "All projects must install interval recording meters" so that it reads as follows:
"All projects must install interval recording meters and have equipment capable of accepting an external signal."

3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies: Peak Load Optimization bullet point: after the phrase "demonstrate that strategy reduces on-peak load by at least 10% as compared to peak electrical demand" and before "(1 point)", insert the following text: "referenced to the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 compliant case"
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
7/25/2019Updated: 7/30/2019
Reference Guide Correction
Description of change:
Grid Harmonization
"Exemplary Performance:
Achieve Case 1 and earn at least 1 point under Case 3 by implementing an eligible load flexibility and management strategy."
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
7/25/2019Updated: 7/29/2019
Rating System Correction
Description of change:
Update the credit requirement "Include the DR program and any installed technologies in the building systems manual." (Case 1 and Case 2) and "Include load flexibility and management strategies and installed technologies in the building systems manual." (Case 3) so that it reads as follows:

"Include the DR program and any installed technologies in the building systems manual, or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning". (Case 1 and Case 2)

"Include load flexibility and management strategies and installed technologies in the building systems manual, or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning." (Case 3)
Campus Applicable
No
Internationally Applicable:
No
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7group / Energy Opportunities
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© Copyright U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. All rights reserved.

Intent

To increase participation in demand response technologies and programs that make energy generation and distribution systems more efficient, increase grid reliability, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Requirements

Design building and equipment for participation in demand response programs through load shedding or shifting. On-site electricity generation does not meet the intent of this credit.

Case 1. Demand Response Program Available and Participation (2 points)
  • Participate in an existing demand response (DR) program and complete the following activities. Design a system with the capability for real-time, fully-automated DR based on external initiation by a DR Program Provider. Semi-automated DR may be utilized in practice.
  • Enroll in a minimum one-year DR participation amount contractual commitment with a qualified DR program provider, with the intention of multiyear renewal, for at least 10% of the annual on-peak electricity demand. On-peak demand is determined under EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance. The on-peak demand may vary based on the utility climate and pricing structures.
  • Develop a comprehensive plan for meeting the contractual commitment during a Demand Response event.
  • Include the DR processes in the scope of work for the commissioning authority, including participation in at least one full test of the DR plan.
  • Include the DR program and any installed technologies in the building systems manual or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning.
  • Initiate at least one full test of the DR plan.
OR
Case 2. Demand Response Capable Building (1 point)
Have infrastructure in place to take advantage of future demand response programs or dynamic, real-time pricing programs and complete the following activities:
  • Install interval recording meters and have equipment capable of accepting an external signal.
  • Develop a comprehensive plan for shedding at least 10% of the annual on-peak electricity demand. On-peak demand is determined under EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance.
  • Include the DR processes in the scope of work for the commissioning authority, including participation in at least one full test of the DR plan.
  • Include the DR program and any installed technologies in the building systems manual or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning.
  • Contact local utility representatives to discuss participation in future DR programs.
AND / OR
Case 3. Load Flexibility and Management Strategies (1-2 points)

Analyze the building’s annual load shape and peak load based as calculated for EA prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance. Review the regional grid load profile using the metric of peak load or peak carbon emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT) provides regional grid emissions data; local utilities may also provide this data.

Coordinate review of building load shape and peak load with review of the regional grid profile to identify the best value load management strategies that the building can provide.

Implement one or more of the load flexibility and management strategies described below for a maximum of up to two points. All projects must install interval recording meters and have equipment capable of accepting an external signal.

Load Flexibility and Management Strategies:
  • Peak Load Optimization: demonstrate that strategy reduces on-peak load by at least 10% as compared to peak electrical demand referenced to the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 compliant case (1 point)
  • Flexible Operating Scenarios: demonstrate that strategy moves at least 10% of peak load by a time period of 2 hours (1 point)
  • On-site thermal and/or electricity storage: demonstrate that strategy reduces on-peak load by at least 10% as compared to peak electrical demand (1 point)
  • Grid resilience technologies: project served by utilities with resilience programs in place, which leverage strategies such as islanding and part-load operation, automatically achieve this credit (1 point)
Include installed technology in the scope of work for the commissioning authority. Include load flexibility and management strategies and installed technologies in the building systems manual or include in the current facilities requirements and operations and maintenance plan if the project is not pursuing EA credit Enhanced Commissioning.

Contact local utility representatives to discuss participation in future DR programs and to inform utility of building load flexibility and management strategies.

LEEDuser expert

Marcus Sheffer

7group / Energy Opportunities
LEED Fellow

See all LEEDuser forum discussions about this credit » Subscribe to new discussions about Data-Centers-NC-v4.1 EAc4